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Genus Buthus Leach, 1815

Index of danger
Buthus genus is composed of:  
Buthus albengai Lourenço, 2003 Morocco. 29-33 26-30
  • Scorpion of big size (up to 8,5 cm) of yellowish color with the darker tergites and the presence of 3 brownish longitudinal bands. Bandage median less broad than the side ones. Aculeus of the blister little curved and a little shorter than the blister. Telson yellow clearly and last ring of the darker tail. Legs yellow very clear.
Buthus atlantis Pocock, 1889 Morocco, (Mogador to Agadir). 31-35 25-28
  • Scorpion of big size, being able to reach 9 cm, colour of the body and the appendices yellow straw to brown clearly. Buthus atlantis separates with facility from the unit from other Buthus by the slim form from the appendices from the tail and the blister.
Buthus Barbouri Werner, 1932 Morocco (Agadir). 24-25 ??
  • Scorpion of average size, 6 cm surroundings. Dark general colour, very hairy tail and maxillipedes, reddish end of the fingers and the tarses.
Buthus bonito Lourenço & Geniez, 2005 Morocco (Tarfaya). 34-35* 29-34
  • Scorpions of medium size, reaching a total length of 5 to 5,5 cm. General coloration very pale yellow, with only some slightly darker zones over the carapace and median carinae of tergites, chelicera finger denticle, oblique rows of granules on pedipalp fingers and extremity of aculeus. These part are blackish in juveniles that exhibit a more contrasted pattern than that of Buthus altlantis. Ventrer, pedipalps and legs very pale yellow. carinae and granulation moderate to weak. Fixed and movable fingers witj 10-11 rows of granules in both sexes. Male pectines very long and largely overlapping in their proximal region.
Buthus brignolii Lourenço, 2003 Sudan (Darfur, Djebel Meidob). ?? 28-29*
  • Scorpion of small size (4 cm) of yellowish color with the tergites slightly darker and the presence of 3 longitudinal bands brown reddish. Bandage median narrower and darker. Last darker ring of the tail and telson. Legs very clear yellow with brownish drafts of spots. Presence of spots on the hands of the pedipalps.
Buthus draa Lourenço & Slimani, 2004 Morocco  
  • In search of informations
Buthus ibericus Lourenço et Vachon, 2004 Spain, (Cadiz, San josé del Valle). 25-29 22-24
  • Scorpion of average size (6,5 cm max.) of brownish yellow color, with the very dark hulls on the prosoma. Tergites very obscured by confluent brownish bands and presence of a longitudinal brownish band on the axial hull. Yellow Telson clearly with the aculeus yellowish at its base and blackish at the end.
Buthus insolitus Borelli, 1925 Somalie  
  • In search of informations
Buthus jianxinae Loureço, 2005 Soudan 33-34 ??
  • Basically pale yellow to slightly reddish-yellow, without any spots. Prosoma with carapace reddish-yellow; eyes surrounded by black pigment. Mesosoma yellowish. Metasoma with segments I to IV yellowish; segment V slightly reddish-yellow; vesicle pale yellow; aculeus yellowish at its base and reddish at its extremity. Venter yellowish. Chelicerae yellowish with variegated light reddish spots; fingers and teeth reddish. Pedipalps yellowish; fixed and movable fingers with 10-11 oblique rows of reddish granules. Legs pale yellow without any spots.
Buthus lienhardi Lourenço, 2003 Morocco (Marrakech). 27-29 22-23
  • Scorpion of average size (6 to 7 cm) of yellowish color dark, with the darker tergites and the presence of confluent coloured bands. Carinae and granules strongly marked on the cephalothorax and the tergites. Aculeus of the telson a little curved and as length as the blister. Legs clear yellow.
Buthus malhommei Vachon, 1949 Morocco (Marrakech, Oum er Rbia valley). 26-30 21-25
  • Specie of small size, 4,5 to 5,5 cm. Of yellow color with the darker tergites and the presence of 3 coloured bands. For the telson the blister is very globulous, the short aculeus is strongly curved.
Buthus mardochei Simon, 1878 Morocco (Agadir). 29-35 25-29
  • Specie of average size, approximately 5 to 6,5 cm. Of yellow color straw with the slightly darker tergites, but without coloured bands. Aculeus of the telson slightly curved and shorter than the blister.
Buthus mariefranceae Lourenço, 2003 Morocco (Goulimine). 24-31 20-27
  • Specie of small size, not exceeding 5 cm. Yellowish color brown, with the darker tergites. Presence of three brownish longitudinal bands as well as many spots on the metasoma, the carapace (head), and the pedipalps. Last almost black segment of the tail. Aculeus fairly curved and a little shorter than the blister.
Buthus Moroccocanus Birula, 1903 Morocco Rabat. 28-32 23-26
  • Scorpion of average size, i.e. being able to reach, in the adult, from 5 to 6 cm, and always of colour sinks uniform (body, appendices and tail) drawing on the black, with only the ends of the ambulatory legs clearer. Squat tail.
Buthus montanus Lourenço & Vachon, 2004 Spain, (Granada, Almeria). 28-29 23-27
  • Scorpion medium or large sized, 6 to 7,5 cm. long. Color generally yellowish, with carinae more darker; tergites with confluent stripes lightly darker. Carapace with carinae strongly developed; centralo-median carinae with big granules forming a transversal carina. Tergites with granules and carinae strongly marked. Metasomal segments I-V with carinae well marked; vesicle with some rarely granuleson the ventral side, almost smooth; aculeus slightly curved as long as the vesicle. Fixed and mobile fingers with 11 oblique rows of granules darker than the fingers.
Buthus occitanus (Amoreux, 1789) Mediterranean area. North Africa. South of Sahara (Senegal, Mali...). 25-36 19-30
  • Scorpion of clear colour, yellow straw with brown dark, with at most some bands coloured on the abdomen and the last ring of the tail, obscured. Of any size, 4 to10 cm.
Buthus paris (C. L. Koch, 1839) Algeria (Alger,Chrea, Tala Guilet). Morocco (Argana, Ifrane and Middle-Atlas). 29-34 23-28
  • In search of informations
Buthus rochati Lourenço, 2003 Morocco (Drâa valley, Tafnidit). 29-35 26-29
  • Scorpion of small size (4 to 4,5 cm), of yellowish color with the hulls of the tergites slightly darker. Presence of bands coloured at the juveniles.Telson and last ring of the tail more darker. Sting of the telson little curved and shorter than the blister. Legs very clear yellow.
Buthus tassili Lourenço, 2002 Algeria (Hoggar, Tassili). 30-32 23-27
  • Species of average size (5 to 5,5 cm), of yellowish general color with sunk spots marked well on the last ring of the tail and the telson. Blister and last segment of the tail darker. Legs pale yellow.
Buthus tunetanus (Herbst, 1800) Tunisia (kerkennat Islands, Djabel Birino, Djehel Diza, Tunis). 29-35 24-29
  • Scorpion of average size (5,5 to 7,5 cm). Yellowish color with the tergites slightly darker. Aculeus of the telson fairly curved and as length as the blister.

* Only one specimen known.

Subspecies of Buthus :

Buthus atlantis (Pocock, 1889)

  • Buthus atlantis atlantis (Pocock, 1889) : Morocco (Mogador, Agadir).
  • Buthus atlantis Parroti (Vachon, 1949) : Morocco (Taroudant, Ademine)

Buthus occitanus (Amoreux,1789)

  • Buthus occitanus israelis (Shulov & Amitai, 1959) : Israel et Sinaï .
  • Buthus occitanus berberensis Pocock, 1900 : Eritrea, Ethiopia.

The Breeding

Note: One of the common species very visible in France with Euscorpius. But it is also found, all around the Mediterranean basin, as well in Israel, as in Turkey, Sicily, North Africa and even Senegal in Somalia. Obviously, within sight of occupied surface, the differences in aspect are very numerous, as well cuts some as color.


Temperature until 35°C for the species living in north Africa, with 25°C for the European ones, minima for the winter: 10°C. A night fall from at least 7 with 8°C is always required. The winter a diapause is necessary if you want to have a reproduction and to prolong the life expectancy of your specimens. It is then necessary to reduce the temperature (11°C) and to decrease the contribution in food. Into summer, its behavior changes with the increase in the temperature, more it makes hot plus this one becomes aggressive.


Especially crickets, but some small spiders as well as the small cockroaches are accepted in general. Eat also other scorpions, same species or of another of lower size. In nature, any insect which passes close to its grips is a potential prey and very often one finds it under the stones with the quite round belly. It pricks with all the blows its prey.


Of share its geographical distribution, this species does not have a particular habitat! One finds it in mountainous areas in Morocco, in arid mediums as in Tunisia like in places moderated as in the south of France. According to the source, the terrarium could be of moderate type (for the European subspecies) to steppe seeing even desert. However generally a mixture of argillaceous ground or sand is appropriate to him perfectly. On a hard ground this species will dig a hiding place. For the hygroscopy count 35% the summer and 60% the winter, but do not forget to provide him to drink. Not too much not to vaporize in terrarium, especially for the old specimens coming from the dry areas. Indeed, of the mycoses can cause the death of the scorpions. Stones or barks are the welcomes to be used to him as hiding-place. For a specimen, a terrarium of 10x20 is enough, for a minimum couple or more 30x20.


It is not, itself, a sociable species. It sometimes happens of the times to find two scorpions together under the same stone, but when you put them together in a terrarium, largest eats smallest. However, it is possible to put a couple together, but supervise the first contacts well then, if all occurs well, supervise during a few days if very continuous to occur well. In the event of birth, isolate the mother and the small ones. Those Ci, after their first moult will be insulated in their turn. The gestation period can last from 10 to 11 months, the range can give 70 small pullus, but count a little less. The mortality of the young people is very significant at the time of the moults.


The subspecies tunetanus is potentially dangerous for the man.



References :

  • Fet, Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD, 2000. The New York Entomological Society.
  • Lourenço W. R., DESCRIPTION OF THREE NEW SPECIES OF SCORPIONS FROM SUDAN (SCORPIONES, BUTHIDAE); Boletin Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa, 2005, 36: 21-28
  • Lourenço W. R., & Greniez P., A NEW SCORPION SPECIES OF THE GENUS BUTHUS LEACH, 1815 (SCORPIONES, BUTHIADE) FROM MOROCCO, 2005, Euscorpius N° 19. Marshall Univerty.
  • Rein, Jan Ove , The Scorpion Files
  • Vachon, Maxime, ETUDES SUR LES SCORPIONS, 1951. Institut Pasteur d'Algerie.
Last update 07/06/2006

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