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Genus Androctonus (Ehrenberg, 1828)

   
Index of danger
Androctonus genus is composed of:  
Androctonus amoreuxi (Audouin & Savigny, 1812)
Africa (Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Senegal, Sudan), and Middle East (Iran, Irak, Afghanistan ...).
28-35 21-29
  • Large species near 11cm. long. Color generally yellowish, with prosomal carapace and tergites slightly darker. Sternites pale yellow. Metasoma yellowish with carinae slightly reddish brown. Vesicle ochre with aculeus yellowish at base and reddish at the end. Legs and pedipalps pale yellow. Carapace with carinae and granules moderately marked. Tergites a few granulated with carinae moderately marked. Metasomal segments in constants width backwards, segments I-IV with dorsal carinae very slightly marked with granules rounded. Vesicle practically smooth, with aculeus a litle longer than the vesicle. Fixed and movable finger of pedipalp bear 12-13 rows of granules.
Androctonus australis (Linné, 1758) North Africa (Algeria, Morocco?, Tunisia, Egypt, libya).
30-38 22-29
  • Large species, the adults attain 10 cm, Color pale yellow more or less ochre with sometimes darker zone on the boby. Sternites pale yellow. Metasomal segment I-IV yellowish, with carinae ventrally brownish, segment V and vesicle darker. Telson with aculeus reddish at base and brownish at the end. Pedipalps yellow or brownish yellow, with finger of pedipalp darker, legs pale yellow. Carapace with carinae and granules well developed and lightly marked on tergites. Metasomal segment strongly widened backwards, metasomal segments I-IV with dorsal carinae strongly marked, with spiniform granules on the poterior side. Vesicle with some granules ventrally; aculeus lightly curved as long as the vesicle. Chela rounded with finger moderately long. Fixed and movable finger of pedipalp bear 12-14 rows of granules.
Androctonus baluchicus (Pocok, 1900) Afganistan, Pakistan. 27-30 22-26
  • Scorpion medium sized (approx. 6,5 cm. long). Color generally reddish yellow to brownish yellow, with sternites pale yellow. Metasomal segment I-III yellow, IV yellowish with darker parts, V and vesicle darker, aculeus reddish at base and blackish at the end. Pedipalps and legs yellowish ochre. Carapace with carinae and granules lightly marked and moderately marked on the tergites. Metasomal segments slightly widened backwards, dorsal carinae on metasomal segments I-IV strongly marked, with spiniform granules on posterior side. Vesicle with some granules on ventral face, aculueus slightly curced, as long as the vesicle. Chela slightly globulous with fingers moderately long. Fixed and movable fingers of pedipalp bear 13-15 rows of granules.
Androctonus bicolor (C.L.Koch, 1839) North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria).
26-32 20-27
  • Species large or medium sized, can reach 7-8 cm. long. Color generally dark, reddish brown to blackish. Sternites reddish brown. Metasomal segments and vesicle blackish brown with blakish carinae; aculeus brownish dark. Legs and pedipalps blackish brown. Carapace with granules and carinae moderately marked. Tergites a few granulated with carinae well marked. Metasomal segments slightly widened backwards ; metasomal segments I-IV with dorsal carinae moderately marked, with a spiniform granule on the porterior side (carinae more strogly marked in the North african species). Vesicle almost smooth, aculeus slightly curved and as long as the vesicle (longer than vesiscle in the North african species). Chela thin with long fingers; fixed and movable fingers bear 13-15 rows of granules.
Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807) Morocco and Middle East (Irak, Turkey, Israel).
27-32 23-27
  • Large species attain 9 cm. long. Color generally reddish brown to brown. Sternites yellowish brown. Metasoma and vesicle reddish brown uniformly with blackish carinae; aculeus reddish brown at base and blackish at the end. Pedipalps reddish brown, legs yellow ochre. Carapace with granule and carinae well developed. Tergites with granules and carinae slightly marked. Metasomal segments slightly widened backwards; metasomal segments I-IV with carinae strongly developed, and with spiniform granules on he posterior side. Vesicle with 3 ventral series of granules; aculeus moderately curved, as long as the vesicle. Chela thin with long fingers; fixed and movable fingers bear 13-15 rows of granules.
Androctonus dekeyseri Lourenço, 2005 Mauritania, Senegal. 32-35 20-26
  • Large species can reach 9 cm. long. Color generally yellowish, with sometimes tergites darker on the females. Sternites pale yellow to yellow ochre. Legs pale yellow and pedipalps yellowish . Metasomal segments I-IV pale yellow, vesicle yellowish dark; aculeus yellowish at base and blackish at the end. Carapace and tergites with granules and carinae well developed. Metasomal segments strongly widened backwards; dorsal, latero-dorsal and latero-ventral carinae strongly developed with spiniform granules. Chela large with fingers moderately long; fixed and movable fingers bear 12-13 rows of granules.
Androctonus finimitus (Pocock, 1897) Pakistan. 29-30 23-24
  • Species medium sized, 7 cm. long. Color generally yellowish. Sternites pale yellow. Metasomal segments yellowish, with sometimes segments IV-V a little more darker; vesicle yellowish; aculeus yellowish at base and reddish at the end. Pedipalps and legs pale yellow. Carapace with granules and carinae well developed. Tergites with carinae and granules slightly developed. Metasomal segments few widened backwards; metasomal segments I-IV strongly marked, with spiniform granules on the posterior side. Vesicle with some granules on ventral side; aculeus moderately curved and as long as the vesicle. Chela not very thick, fingers moderately long, fixed and movable fingers bear 13-15 rows of reddish granules.
Androctonus gonneti Vachon, 1948 Morocco ( Drâa valley), Mauritania. 28-33 23-25
  • Large species, can reach 9 cm. long. Color generally pale brown to reddish brown. Sternites reddish yellow. Metasoma uniformly reddish, with dark carinae; vesicle yellow ochre; aculeus yellowish at base and dark brown at the end. Pedipalps yellow ochre; legs pale yellow. Carapace with granules and carinae strongly developed. Tergites with granules and carinae well marked. Metasomal segments slightly widened backwards; metasomal segment I-IV with dorsal carinae strongly deveoped, with spiniform granule on the posterior side . Vesicle with fine granulation but dense in the ventral side; aculeus well curved and longer than vesicle. Chela thick with fingers moderately long; fingers moderately long, fixed and movable fingers bear 13-15 rows of reddish granules.
Androctonus hoggarensis (Pallary, 1929) North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, libya). In altitude (<1000m).
31-33 24-29
  • Large species can reach 10 cm. long. Color generally dark green to brown chocolat. Sternites yellowish brown. Metasoma and vesicle brown chocolat with blackish carinae; aculeus brownish. Pedipalps reddish brown, fingers darker; legs ochre yellow. Carapace with granules and carinae well developed. Tergites with carinae and granules slightly marked. Metasomal segment widened backwards; metasomal segments I-IV with dorsal carinae strongly developed, spiniform granules on the posterior side. Vesicle almost smooth, but punctated on the ventral and lateral side; aculeus slightly curved as long as the vesicle. Chela thick with moderately long fingers; fixed and movable fingers bear 13-15 rows of dark granules.
Androctonus liouvillei (Pallary, 1924) Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania. 28-32 22-26
  • Species medium or large sized, 7,5 cm. long. Color generally reddish brown. Sternite yellow ochre. Metasoma and vesicle reddish brown with black carinae; aculeus reddish at base and blackish brown at the end. Legs and pedipalps ochre yellow. Carapace with granules and carinae strongly developed. Tergites with granules and carinae well marked. Metasomal segment widened backwards; metasomal segments I-IV with dorsal carinae well developed, with spiniform granules on the posterior side; vesicle with pointed granules on the ventral side; aculeus well curved and as long as the vesicle. Chela slightly thick with long fingers; fixed and movable fingers bear 15-16 rows of reddish granules.
Androctonus maelfaiti Lourenço, 2005 India. 30 21-22
  • Medium sized species (6.5 cm. long). Color generally reddish brown. Sternites ochre yellow. Legs ochre yellow and pedipalps reddish brown. Metasoma and vesicle reddish brown, aculeus at base reddish and blackish at the end. Carapace with granules and carinae strongly developed. Tergites with granules and carinae slightly marked. Metasomal segments strongly widened backwards; metasomal segments I-IV strongly developed, with spiniform granules on the posterior side. Chela thick with slightly long fingers; fixed and movable fingers bear 13-14 rows of granules.
Androctonus mauritanicus (Pocock, 1902) North Africa : Morocco (Atlas).
24-30 20-25
  • Large species can reach 9 cm. long. Coloration generally dark brown to blackish. Sternites dark brown with clearer zones. Metasoma and vesicle dark brown with blackish carinae; aculeus brownish, darker at the end. Legs and pedipalps dark brown. Carapace with granules and carinae strongly developed. Tergites very granulated with carinae well marked. Metasomal segments widened backwards; metasomal segments I-IV with dorsal carinae well developed with spiniform granules on the posterior side. Vesicle with some granules on the ventral side; aculeus well curved and as long as the vesicle. Chela moderatelly thick with fingers not very long; fixed and movable fingers bear 13-15 rows of dark granules.
Androctonus sergenti (Vachon, 1948) North Africa : Morocco (Anti-Atlas).
23-27 21-23
  • Medium to large sized species, about 6,5 to 7,5 cm. long. Color generally dark, brown chocolat to brownish black. Sternites brownish with clearer zones. Metasoma and vesicle dark brown; aculeus brownish, darker at the end. Legs and pedipalps brown chocolat. Carapace with granules and carinae strongly developed. Tergites with granules and carinae well marked. Metasomal segments widened backwards; metasomal segments I-IV with carinae not very developed, with a granule spiniform in the anterior side. Vesicle with some granules on the ventral side; aculeus well curved, and as long as the vesicle. Metasomal tegument with punctate zones. Chela thin with long fingers; fixed and movable fingers bear 13-15 rows of granules.

Subspecies of Androctonus :

Androctonus amoreuxi (Audouin, 1826)

  • Androctonus amoreuxi amoreuxi (Audouin, 1826) : Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Mauritania, Morocco, Chad, Senegal, Sudan.
  • Androctonus amoreuxi levyi (Fet, 1997) : Egypt (Sinaï), Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria.

Androctonus australis (Linné, 1758)

  • Androctonus australis australis (Linné, 1758) : Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Chad, Tunisia, Yemen.
  • Androctonus australis africanus Lamy, Le Pape & Weill, 1974 : Tunisia.
  • Androctonus australis garzonii: Tunisia.

Androctonus bicolor (C.L. Koch, 1839)

  • Androctonus bicolor aeneas (C.L. Koch, 1839) : Algeria, Tunisia, Libya.
  • Androctonus bicolor bicolor (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828) : Israel, Egypt, Lebanon.
  • Androctonus bicolor longecarinatus (Caporiacco, 1932) : Libya

Androctonus mauritanicus (Pocock, 1902)

  • Androctonus mauritanicus mauritanicus (Pocock, 1902) : Mauritania, Morocco.
  • Androctonus mauritanicus bourdoni Vachon, 1948 : Morocco (South)

The Breeding

Note: We formally disadvise to the beginners this family considered for her very toxic venom.

 

Temperature:

This scorpions are accustomed to heats, but also to the cold. The species of the Moroccan Atlas are accustomed to being found with snow during several months in the year. Moreover it freezes during the night for the species of the desert. A scorpion will not, in general, tolerate a temperature of more than 50°C., an average temperature of 28°C is enough, however the moults will be brought closer if you have 30°C in your terrarium. The night the temperature must go down, 22°C would be very well.

Food:

They are scorpions of good size, the preys are multiple. That can go from the cricket, with the locust pilgrim, while passing by lizards, small mammals, and other scorpions. Small, the small crickets will be very well for a young Androctonus. Attention because these scorpions are not spent and store food, also too often do not give to eat, if you don't want to see your Androctonus resemble at a golf ball...

Terrarium:

Obviously, it will be a dry terrarium and aired very well, with a rate of hygroscopy of 20 to 30% surroundings (vaporize slightly once per month maxi). Excessive moisture can give mycosis to an adult specimen (A. australis, A. amoreuxi especially), and this one can die about it. A fine sand or a very coarse ground will be enough for him in much case like substrate. Like Androctonus does not dig gallery, put to them some stones punts so that they hide below. A feeding trough will be installed from time to time. A terrarium of 20x30 will be the minimum for a couple.

Sociability:

It's possible to keep several Androctonus together in the same enclosure. There will be losses, strongest will eliminate weakest, but once very regulated it will have there no more problem. Especially not to add an other specimen when the group is formed. It is necessary to insulate the females in gestation. The cases of cannibalism, mother/young, during the birth are very frequent, therefore a little calms will help so that all this master key well. Isolate the babies after the first moult when those expresses the will to move away from their mother. It is to better insulate them each one in a pot, because the cases of cannibalism between youthful are very frequent too. Very significant mortality of the young.

Note:

Please be careful with this family. I want to see you again in this web site ....

References :

  • Fet, Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD, 2000. The New York Entomological Society.
  • Lourenço W. R., NOUVELLES CONSIDERATIONS TAXONOMIQUES SUR LES ESPECES DU GENRE ANDROCTONUS EHRENBERG, 1928 ET DESCRIPTION DE DEUX NOUVELLES ESPECES (SCORPIONES, BUTHIDAE), 03/2005. Revue Suisse de Zoologies 112 (1): 145-171.
  • Rein, Jan Ove , The Scorpion Files
  • Vachon, Maxime, ETUDES SUR LES SCORPIONS, 1951. Institut Pasteur d'Algerie.
Last update 07/30/2005
 

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