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Genus Centruroides Marx,1890

On work

On standby of informations for a lot of species, thank you of your indulgence...

   
Index of danger
Centruroides genus is composed of:  
Danger middle hight
Centruroides alayoni Armas, 1999 Dominican Rep.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides anchorellus Armas, 1976 Cuba.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides arctimanus (Armas, 1976) Cuba.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides bani Armas & Marcano Fondeur, 1987 Dominican rep..  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides baracoae Armas, 1999 Cuba.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides barbudensis (Pocock, 1898) Lesser Antilles: (Anguilla, Antigua, Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Barthélemy, St. Martin).  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides bertholdii (Thorell, 1876) Mexico
Male 26-27. Female ??
  • Adult 8 cm. long. Upperside of mesosoma uniformly fuscous or subferruginous, tail a little paler towards the extremity; legs and chelae also uniformly coloured and paler than mesosoma. Upperside of mesosoma thickly granular, the granules not forming definite series; the tergites with short lateral crests. sternites smooth, coriaceous laterally, the last with four crenulated crest, and very finely granular in front and laterally, and with a large granule on each side between the keels and side margin. Tail very long and narrow, with the surface very finely coriaceous, all the keels on segment I-IV normaly granulate; segment V almost smooth, with the superior edges widely rounded, the keels at most represented by very minute granules; vesicle ovato-cylindrate, about twice as long as wide; a slender conical subaculear tooth. Chelae normally keeled, very finel granular above; movable finger with eight rows of teeth.
Centruroides bicolor (Pocock, 1898) Costa Rica , Panama.
Male 27-28 Female 25-28
  • Carapace and upperside of abdomen mostly black, yellowish brown in parts, the last tergite yellowish brown wit black keels, sternites yellowish brown, blackish on the margins (and in the middle in the female); tail darkening posteriorly, its segments I-IV deep ochre yellow, paler than the pale area of mesosoma, the granules on the keels black, the inferior keels more diffused with black; segemnt V with its sides and under surface blackish; vesicle blackish, red above like the upperside of the segment V; chelicera infuscate; chela yellow for the most part, a blackish spot at the tip of the bachium, the hand deep reddish brown with black keels, fingers blackish with pale tips; legs a rich yellow like the humerus and brachium, with the maxilary processes of first and second pairs apiclly infuscate; pectines pale. Carapace and tergites, granular, as in C. gracilis; sternites also as in that species, III more thickly pitted mesially, IV and V finely and closely granular mesially as well as laterally, II and III also very weakly granular mesially. Tail and chela practically as in C. gracilis. In the male the caudal keels are smoother than in C. gracilis, those on segment V being almost entirely smooth, and the vesicle is more globular and more uniformely sloped on each side of the aculeus.
Centruroides chamulaensis Hoffmann, 1932 Mexico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides chiapanensis Hoffmann, 1932 Mexico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides elegans (Thorell, 1876) Mexico.
Male 23-25 Female 22-23
  • Adult 6 cm. long. Upperside of mesosoma yellow , banded with black; carapace with black margin, black ocular tubercle, and four black lines, one each side passing backwards and slightly inwards from the lateral eyes to the posterior border, and one one each side close to the middle line from the anterior border to the ocular tubercle, thence backwards on each side of the median groove to the hinder border; Dorsal side of abdomen with a pair of brad black bands separated by a broad median yellow band and from the lateral border by another yellow band, the yellow and black bands approximately equal in widht; last tergite not distincly banded; ventral surface pale; tail, legs and chelae quite pale or motled with black. Chelae at most finely granular, the crest with pearl-like granulation. Pedipalp chela fixed finger with eight primary rows of denticles.
Centruroides excilicauda (Wood, 1863) Mexico, USA.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides exilimanus Teruel & Stockwell, 2002 Mexico, USA.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides exsul (Meise, 1934) Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, Panama?, Peru?.
Male 21-32 Female 19-24
  • Smaller species of centruroides, adults 4-5,5 cm. in length. Color uniformly reddish yelow to reddidh brown, lacking dorsal stripes on the mesosomal tergites. Carapace, post-tergites, and intercarinal spaces of metasoma and pedipaps densely, coarsely granular. Median carina of tergites I-IV strong, granular, tergite VII pentacarinate, all five keels strong, crenulate to serrate. Sternite VII tetracarinate, all keels moderate, granular. Metasomal carinae on I-IV moderate to strong, crenulate to serrate; metasomal segment V pentacarinate. telson vesicle irregularly granular; subaculear tooth obsolete to vestigial. Dorsal marginal, dorsal digital, ventroexternal, and dorso-internal carinae of pedipalp chela strong, granulose; external secondary carina vestigial, granulose distally. Fixed finger with 7-8 oblique rows of granules; movable finger with 7-8 such rows plus a short apical row of 3-4 granules; supernumerary granules present in older instars. Cheliceral fixed finger with one ventral nodule.
Centruroides farri Armas, 1976 Jamaica.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides flavopictus (Pocock, 1898)
Mexico.
Male 22 Female 20-22
  • Males adults about 7 cm. long, and females are up to 6 cm. long. Upperside of mesosoma blackish or yellowish-brown, the last tergite paler, the others with a norrow median yellow stripe or spot and a margin spot on each side; tail reddish brown, deep blackish brown beneath at its posterior end, vesicle paler than segment V; chela pale at base, humerus and brachium, especially the brachium, stained with brown; hands yellowish red, much lighterin color than the brachium; fingers black, much blacker than the hand, with pale tips. Legs yellow. Crapace and tergites relatively finely granular, the former without serial arrangement of granules, the later without a trace of lateral keels, except on the plates V and VI; sternite IV mesially carinae, V coriaceous, finely granular laterally, the keels granular or crenulate.Tail moderately stout, segmen IV twice as long as wide, vesicle granular, with triangular subaculear tooth close to base of aculeus. Chela finely and closely granular or coriaceous; normally keeled; hand narrow.
Centruroides fulvipes (Pocock, 1898) Mexico.
Male ?? Female 28-29
  • Tructurally ressembling C. nigrescens, but totally different in color, mesosoma brownish black above, the last tergites paler than the others; tail blackish posteriorly and beneath, the upperside of I, II and III segments reddish brown, chela whith trochanter and humerus yellow; brachium, hand, and base of fingers blackish brown, nearly the whole of the fingers deep brown; legs and coxa reddish brown, maxillary processes not infuscate.
Centruroides gracilis (Latreille, 1804)
Canary Islands (introduced), Mexico, USA (Floride), Antilles, Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador?, Venezuela.
Male 30-36 Female 25-30
  • Scorpion about 12 cm. long. Carapace and tergites deep reddish brown, sternites paler but clouded with rich brown; tail yellowish brown, paler than tergites, darker posteriorly and beneath; legs ochre yellow; chela rather darker than the legs, the hand redder than brachium, fingers nearly black with yellow tips; chelicera deep brown; coxa, sternum, pale. Upperside of mesosoma studded with coarse, shining, symmetrically arranged tubercles, an area extending obliquely forwards on each side of the median eyes and the interstices between the rows of coarse tubercles finely granular; anterior portin of tergites finely and closely granular; vesicle weackly granular below, slightly wider than high; subaculear spine well developed, triangular, its upper (anterior) edge lightly convex, the distance between it and the base of aculeus exceeding the widht of the base of the spine. Sternites shining, II, III and IV coarsely punctured in the middle, the last very finely granular laterally, and furnished with four keels. Chela shagreened, the crest on humerus and brachium closely granular; hand with one complete weakly granular finger keel, an incomplete keel close to it on the outer side; fixed finger with corresponding shallow excavation, the movable with 9 rows of teeth.
Centruroides griseus (C. L. Koch, 1844) Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides guanensis Franganillo, 1930 Bahamas, Cuba, USA (Floride).  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides hentzi (Banks, 1900) USA (Alabama, Floride, Georgie).
Male 17-19 Female 16-18
  • Carpace uniformly light mottled brown. Dorsal surface of chelicera with distinct brown reticulation. Pedipalp chela fingers infuscate; pedipalp segments with dusky marbling. Median yellow stripe usually about half as wide as black stripes. Metasomal segments with entire ventral aspect of metasomal segments infuscate with pale spots marking positions of setae. Legs moderately to heavily infuscate. Telson broadest apically, withe subtle "shoulders". Telson ventrally with moderate, crenulate carina leading into subaculear tubercle. Subaculear tooth large, and angular.
Centruroides hoffmanni Armas, 1996 Mexico (Southeastern Oaxaca. southwestern Chiapas). Male 21-24 Female 20-22
  • A medium sized Centruroides species (36-58 mm, males are the shorter), yellow or light yellow brown with distinctly dusky marbling on carapace; tergites I-VI with two dusky submedian bands. Basal plate of pectines subsquare in shape in the female, with a central pit. Metasomal intercarinal space finely and sparsely granular, dorsolateral carinae I-IV, lateral supramedian carinae I-IV, lateral inframedian carinae I, and ventrolateral carinae I-IV strong, feebly serrate on most part. Pedipalps including manus, faintly marbled with pale brown. Telson dark brown (sometime paler in some males), contrasting with metasomal segments. Vesicle globose, with subaculear tubercle spinelike, well developed.
Centruroides infamatus (C.L. Koch, 1844) Mexico.
Male 21-22 Female 17-18
  • Small scorpions, adults males attain 5 cm. Color of the carapace with the whole of its median area deep brown, yellow only externally; the brown tergitesl bands broad, about twice as broad as the median yellow stripe or rather broader, also considerably broader than the lateral pale band, each patch , moreover, is complete and extends from the anterior to the posterior of the tergum; a narrow dark stripe on the extreme edge of te carapace and at least upon the anterior half of the edge of the tergites; the crest on the last sternum and on the lower side of the tail lightly infuscate; chelae, legs, and tail uniformly pale. Closely ressembling C. elegans in structure, but wit the hand thinner, and a more distinct subaculear tooth. Males differ from the females in the form of the tail, and hands a little wider.
Centruroides insalanus (Thorell, 1876) Jamaica.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides jaragua Armas, 1999 Dominican rep..  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides koesteri Kraepelin, 1912 Costa Rica.
Male 22-26 Female 21-25
  • Adults 6,5 to 7,5 cm. long. Light yellow or yellow-brown with diffuse dark-brown tingeing on carapace, tergites and metasomal carinae; metasomal pretergites with moderately dense, uniform, dark-brown bands submedially. Carapace with superciliary crest smooth to vestigially crenate. Metasomal s segments I and II with 10 keels, lateral inframedians on II incomplete, present on distal on-half to one-third; II and IV with eight keels each, lateral inframedians obsolete; all metasomal keels moderately strong, with distinct large granules. Segment V 2,1 to 2,4 times longer than wide, in adult males segemnt V shorter than segment IV. Pedipalp chela somewhat stut, with granulose carinae, digital carina strong, manus lighter than fingers; dentate margin of fixed finger with eight primary rows of denticles. Inner aspects of pedipalp femur, tibia and chela sparsely hirsute, almost bare.
Centruroides limbatus (Pocock, 1898) Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua.
Male 19-27 Female 18-26
  • Polymorphic; Adults medium to large, up to 11 cm long. Color variable, ranging from an uniform dark brown to yellow, with the ocular tubercle, margins of the carapace and tergites, pedipalp chela fingers, chelicera, metasomal segment V and telson, and metasomal carinae heavily infuscate, almost black. Pedipalp chela slender; digital carinae vestigial to obsolete; fixed finger with nine imbricated rows of primary denticles. Carapace, tergites and carinae with variable but usually sparse, granulation. Metasomal segment V on male 3 to 3,5 times longer than wide. Males differ from females with a body slightly less granulose.
Centruroides limpidus (Karsch, 1879) Mexico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides luceorum Armas, 1999 Antilles (Navassa islands).  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides mahnerti Lourenço, 1983 Nicaragua.  
  • Recherche informations
Centruroides marcanoi Armas, 1981 Dominican rep..  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides margaritatus (Gervais, 1841)
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Dominican Rep., El Salvador, Venezuela.
Male 25-34 Female 23-33
  • Medium to large scorpions, adults 6 to 10 cm. long. Color variable : carapace, tergite I-IV, pedipalp chela, metasomal segment V and telson dark red-brown; carinae and larger gramulation on body dark red-brown to black; all other regions yellow to yellow-brown. Carapace and tergites with dense, large granulation. Metasomal segment V 3 to 3,5 times longer than wide in males, slightly more than 2 times longer than wide in females. Metasomal carinae moderate to strong, granulose. Pedipalps densely hirsute, particularly internal aspect; all carinae moderate to strong, granulose; Chela stout; digital carinae strong. Pedipalp chela fixed finger with eight primary rows of denticles.
Centruroides melanodactylus Teruel, 2002 Cuba.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides navarroi Teruel, 2002 Cuba.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides nigrescens (Pocock, 1898) Mexico.
Male 28-30 Female 25-27
  • Females are about 8,5 cm., and males up to 10,5 cm. long. Color alike in both sexes, and differing from that of all the species closely related to C. gracilis in bieng of an uniform blackish green on the upperside of mesosoma, the tail, legs, and chela, the tarsus only and the distal half of the fingers being, however, pale; coxa and sternal plates mesially yellowish brown; pectines flavous. Upperside of mesosoma coarsely and closely granular. Sternites smooth and polished, not coriaceous or granular, except the V. Tail with al the keels coearsely granular in the female, less so in the male; vesicle in male of the same shape as in C. nigrimanus; in female the subacuelar tooth aqually close to the base of aculeus.
Centruroides nigrimanus (Pocock, 1898) Honduras, Mexico.
Male 32-33 Female ??
  • Scorpion reaching 11 cm. long for the male. Ressembling to the male C. bicolor, but more coarsely and closely granular above, caudal segment V having its crest very distinctly granular, and its interstices also granular, whereas in C. bicolor this segment is almost entirely smooth throughout; vesicle very different in form from of C. bicolor, being strongly compressed antera-posteriorly, flat behind, parallel-sized, and laterally pited, the aculeus more abruptly bent backwards from the base, and the subaculear tooth very close to its base, and with its apex turned towards the aculeus, the distance between the two being less, or at least not greater, than the basal width of the tooth. Legs more coarsely granular externally than in C. bicolor.
Centruroides nigrovariatus (Pocock, 1898) Mexico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides nitidus (Thorell, 1876) Haïti, Puerto Rico, Dominican rep..
Male 25 Female 17-21
  • Large scorpions, adults 8 cm. long. Color much as in C. elegans, the tergites with a pair of black bands as in that species; carapace not banded nor mesially infuscate, the lower side of the tail with a broad, median, black band, sometimes complete, sometimes failing on the first and fifth, more rarely on the fourth segment; chelae and legs uniformly yellowish-brown, but the fingers black, at least in the basal half, where they are much darker than the hand. Upperside of mesosoma finely and closely granular, studded with coarser granulation, the tergites without lateral granular crests.sternites as in C. elegans, the third and the fourth finely coriaceous, the fourth with scarcely a trace of crests. Tail parallel-sided, the side of segments IV more convex than in C. elegans, vesicle almost as high as wide, without a spine beneath the aculeus. Chelae finely granular, hand very broad, fixed finger with eight primary rows of denticles.
Centruroides noxius Hoffman, 1932 Mexico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides ochraceus (Pocock, 1898) Mexico.
Male 27-28 Female 27
  • Medium sized scorpions, males about 6,7 cm. long, and females are up to 7 cm. long. Upperside of mesosoma a deep uniform yellowish brown; tail, legs, and chela uniformly ochre yellow. Carapace and tergites studded with coarse granules, which are arranged on the former in definite serie and on the latter in usual way, the lateral keels being apparent on all but the first and second tergites. sternites smooth, III with only a few coarse punctures, IV with weak crest, V very finely granular laterally, tthe four keels smooth, the lateral at most crenulate. Vesicle slightly wider than high, weakly granular, subaculear tooth long, broad at base, slender and pointed apiclly, aculeus abruptly curved backwards from its base. Chela at most very finelygranular; upper finger keels on hand strong and smooth, inner finger keel crenulate, rest of the hand smooth, with only a few weak granules on its inner surface. Movable finger with a strong basal lobe and 8 rows of teeth.
Centruroides orizaba Armas & Martin-Frias, 2003 ??  
  • Recherche informations
Centruroides pallidiceps Pocock, 1902 Mexico.  
  • Recherche informations
Centruroides platnicki Armas, 1981 Bahamas.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides pococki Sissom & Francke, 1983
Lesser Antilles (St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, La Desiderade, Marie Galante, Dominique).
 
  • In search of informations
Centruroides rileyi Sissom, 1995 Mexico. Male 14 Female 11-13
  • Base color yellow to light yellow brown. Carapace with distinct dusky marbling concentrated mostly in median area. Tergites with distinct, regular pattern of blackish spots. Metasomal segments I-IV light yellow, moderately infuscate; V and telson more heavyly infuscate, appearing draker than preceding segments. Cheliceral manus with strong dusky marbling. Pedipalps and legs yellow, with distinct dusky markings. Venter uniformly yelowish anteriorly; sternites lighty infascate. Carapace moderately coarsely granular; anterior median furrow moderately deep; posterior median furrow shallow anteriorly, deeper posteriorly; carapacial carinae weak, indicated by lines of small granules. Median carina on tergites I-IV moderate, granular; on V-VI moderate, granular to crenulate. Vesicle elongtae oval in shape with aculeus moderately deflected downward; ventral aspect with median longitudinal row of small granules. Leading to subaculear tubercle; subaculear tubercle narrow, but angular in lateral view, its point directed towards middle of aculeus. Vetral aspect of vesicle lightly granular. Fixed finger with eight oblique rows of granules flanked by supernumerary granules.
Centruroides robertoi Armas, 1976 Cuba.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides schmidti Sissom, 1995 Guatemala , Honduras, Mexico?.
Male 15 Female 14-15
  • Base color light yellow brown above with faint to moderate dusky marking on dorsum, chelicerae, pedipalps, legs and sternites. Coloration fairly uniform exept as follows: coxosternal region light yellow, pectines very pale yellow, metasomal segment V and telson dark orange to reddish brown; cheliceral teeth and tip of aculeus dark reddish brown. Carapace moderately coarsely granular; carapacial carinae inconspiscous, incated by lines of small granules. Mesosomal median carinae on I-VI moderate, granular. Tergite VII with moderate, granular median keel and two pairs moderate, finely serrated lateral keels. Sternites III-VI essentially smooth, with some fine granulation on VI; VII with subledian and lateral carinae moderate, finely serrate. Vesicle elongate oval in shape with gently rounded dorsal margin; ventral aspect with row of small granules leading to subaculear tubercle; subaculear tubercle norrow, but angular in lateral view, its point directed towards middle of aculeus. Fixed and movable finger with eight oblique rows of granules, these flanked by supernumerary granules.
Centruroides sissomi Armas, 1996 Mexico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides stockwelli Teruel, 2002 Cuba.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides subgranosus (Kraepelin, 1898) Central America.
Male ?? Female ??
  • About the same form and size as C. elegans, but nearly uniformly yellowish-brown, there being at most indistinct traces of a median and lateral pale spot separated by a slightly darker patch; Legs, tail, and chelae uniformly yellowixh-brown. Granulatin of mesosoma finer and closer than in C. elegans, and, as in that species, with lateral keels traceable as a pair or more of serially-arranged granules. sternites as in C. elegans, but the fourth with the keels less well developed, but still traceable. Subaculear tooth longer than in C. elegans.
Centruroides suffusus (Pocock, 1902) Mexico.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides testaceus (DeGeer, 1778) Lesser Antilles (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao), Venezuela.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides thorellii (Kraepelin, 1891) Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico.
Male 12-17 Female 12-15
  • Small scorpions, adults males rarely attain 5 cm. in length; Slender. Base color yellow, with symmetrical infuscate marbling producing an overall speckled appearence. Metasomal segment V and telson uniformly infuscate. Chelicera weakly infuscate. Pedipalp chela fixed finger with eight primary rows of denticles. Chela thinner than tibia, with weak digital carina. Metasoma very long and slender in adult male, segment I three times longer than wide, segment V at least five times longer than wide. Females differ from males by the coloration more densely infuscate, the metasoma not very elongate, telson vesicle more bulbous and the length (4 cm).
Centruroides underwoodi Armas, 1976 Jamaica.  
  • In search of informations
Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821)
Mexico, USA (Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Louisiane, Missouri, Nebraska, Nouveau Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).
Male 21-30 Female 18-27
  • Medium scorpions, adults 4,5 to 6,5 cm. long. Color differing from the Centruroides elegans in that the carapace has a deep black triangular patch in front of and involving the eyes, and a pair of irregular broad bands extending from the ocular tubercle to the posterior border, sometimes uniting in the middle line, sometimes encroaching on the lateral area of the carapace; legs, chelae, lower side of tail, and upperside of chelicera indistinctly speckled or uniformly pale; lower side of tail with traces a least of a median band. Structurally resembling to C. elegans, but the subaculear tubercle much nearer to the base of the aculeus. Males differ from the females in the form of the tail, this one is much longer and thinner.

Note: Considering the nearly constant overlapping of the number of the teeth of pecten, one will base oneself for the identification of the sexes, on the sexual dismorphism, the males having the last metasomal segments longer than the females.

The Breeding

Note: Centruroides are divided in two groups. Those which live in the places heat and dryness (xeric), and the others which live in moderate heat and wet medium (mesic). Of course, it makes adapt the conditions of breeding of the scorpion by taking account of its origin.

Temperature:

Centruroides live in tropical medium, require a more constant temperature, on average 24/25°C, than the specimens living in arid medium. For the latter, one can go up until 35°C but with the proviso of remaking well to fall the temperature to 20/22°C for the night. It is necessary however to maintain to the young people a good 30°C and that whatever their origin, if one wants to have a good growth of the young people. It will be noticed besides, that the young people stop growing and do not feed almost more in the event of too low temperature. It is possible that certain tropical species undergo during the "Lent" a food wintering.

Food:

The crickets as well as the young locusts make the deal very well. One can also test the cockroaches of small and average sizes with more or less of success. For the very young (stage 2), it is possible to give drosophilas to make them pass at the higher stage and from then being able, to give them small crickets. For some species, in this family, in fact frightening hunters can catch preys as large as them.

Terrarium:

Owing to the great surface of distribution, the terrarium can be either tropical, or desert. In a general way, the tropical species will be maintained on a substrate (peat or ground) wet, with a hygroscopy from 70 to 85%, with hiding-places but also of the branches or great pieces of wood, because these species are excellent climbing ones and are very often maintained against the barks of the trees. A feeding trough is always advised so that the adults come to be refreshed. For the species known as desert, sand or an argillaceous ground is ideal like substrate. The hygroscopy necessary ranges between 25 and 45%, but that does not prevent vaporizing a corner of terrarium or from filling a small feeding trough from time to time (on average 1 time per month). One will have of the stones or the barks to be used as hiding-places.

Sociability:

One can maintain Centruroides (several couples) together without too much damage. Of course in the event of lack of food, the cannibalism takes again very quickly the top, smallest will make the expenses of them. They should however be maintained in a sufficiently large vat and with enough of hiding-places for all. One can even put together, of the different species (but asking for the same conditions of breeding), such as for example C gracilis and C margaritatus. But it is to better isolate the young people in order to make them grow separately, then when they are sufficiently large (stage 5), one can give them together.

Note:

It's necessary to give great attention to this kind of scorpions. Centruroides are very fast scorpions, which react to the least air volume displacement. Some of these species (Centruroides noxius, C infamatus) make annually, some hundreds of died in Mexico and USA. So, they will be reserved to experienced and very careful scorpions's breeders.

Centruroides margaritatus
Centruroides gracilis male
Centruroides limbatus male
Centruroides vittatus

References :

  • Fet Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD, 2000. The New York Entomological Society.
  • Francke F. F., Stockwell S. A., SCORPIONS (ARACHNIDA) FROM COSTA RICA, 1987. Special Publications. Texas Tech. University, 25.
  • Martin-Frías & Al., Redescription of the Mexican Scorpion Centruroides hoffmanni Armas, 1996 (Scorpiones : Buthidae) 2005. EUSCORPIUS N° 22.
  • Pocock, R. I., BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA, ARACHNIDA SCORPIONES, 1902. London.
  • Rein, Jan Ove , The Scorpion Files
  • Shelley Rowland, M., & Sissom, W. David, DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE CENTRUROIDES VITTATUS (SAY) AND CENTRUROIDES HENTZI (BANKS) IN THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO (SCORPIONES, BUTHIDAE), 1995 J.A.O 23: 100-110.
  • Sissom, W. David, REDESCRIPTION OF THE SCORPION CENTRUROIDES THORELLI KRAEPELIN (BUTHIDAE) AND DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW SPECIES, 1995. J.A.O. 23: 91-99.
Last update 26 octobre, 2005
 

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