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Genus Euscorpius (Thorell, 1876)

   
Index of danger
Centruroides genus is composed of:  
Euscorpius alpha Caporiaco, 1950 Areas of the Alps of the North of Italy, in the west of the Adige river, Switzerland.
?? ??
  • Identical in any point to E. germanus, the differences are done only with genetic analyses.
Euscorpius balearicus Caporiacco, 1950 Endemic to the Balearic Islands.
7-9 6-8
  • Species of small to medium size. The coloration is a light brownish-tan with little contrasting pattern. Proportionally, this species has a reduced metasoma and unusually large pedipalps. Metasomal carinae are essentially obsolete on segments I-IV except for weakly granulated dorsal carinae.
Euscorpius beroni Fet, 2000 Mountainous area of Albania.
?? ??
  • Small species of 3 cm. The body is maroon clear with the darker legs.
Euscorpius carpathicus (Linné, 1767) Roumania.
7-10 6-9
  • Medium sized species (less than 4 cm), dark brown in overall coloration, no distinct pattern present. Legs, chelicerae and telson yellow orange; pectines yellow. Pedipalp carinae slightly darker than segments. Metasomal segments and chelae somewhat stocky in appearance. Dorsal patellar spur of reduced to medium developement. Metasomal inferior lateral carinae obsolete on segment I-III and inferior median carina obsolete on segments I-IV. Trichobotria em series (=3) and the reduced dorsal patellar spur are key diagnostic characters for this species. Vesicle smooth, swollen both laterally and ventrally. Aculeus forming a short conspicuous curve; 4-5 pairs of setae at vesicle/aculeus juncture.
Euscorpius flavicaudis (DeGeer, 1778) Algeria, Tunisia, France, Italy, Spain. Accidentally imported in Great Britain and Uruguay.
?? ??
  • Scorpion which can reach 4,5 cm, but more often making 4 cm. The body is maroon very dark, almost black, with the legs and the telson yellowish.
Euscorpius gamma Caporiaco, 1950 Austria, Croatia, Italy et Slovenia.
?? ??
  • Scorpion not exceeding 3,5 cm. Color dark chestnut (chocolate).
Euscorpius germanus (C.L. Koch, 1837) Austria, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland.
?? ??
  • Small scorpion from 2 to 3 cm, black color. The body and the legs are uniformly of the same color.
Euscorpius hadzii Caporiacco, 1950 Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria (southwest), Cratia, Greece (nothwest), Macedonia, Yugoslavia (Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia).
7-11 7-9
  • Medium to large species (4 cm max.), coloration variable, ranging from almost complete black to lighter orange brown. Basic color dark brown to black, pedipalps and carapace darkest; mesosma, metasoma and telson slightly lighter; legs and chelicerae medium brown. No discernable patterns present. Metasoma somewhat elongated, dorsal patellar spur well developed. The eb series of 5 and eba series of 7 are major diagnostic characters of this species. Vesicle quite swollen both laterally and dorsally, covered with small scattered granules. Aculeus forming short conspicuous curve; 5-7 pairs of setae at vesicle/aculeus juncture. Small rounded granule with setal pair at base of aculeus, formins small subaculear tubercle.
Euscorpius italicus (Herbst, 1800)
Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Georgia, Turkey, Yemen, Albania, Croatia, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
?? ??
  • The largest of the Euscorpius family, being able to reach 5 cm, and of the times even a little more. The body is of a very dark chestnut with the legs and the aculeus maroon but more clearly to orange.
Euscorpius koschewnikowi Birula, 1900 Greece (Mt Athos, Chalkidiki).
8 6-7
  • Medium to large species (4,6 cm. max.). Coloration medium dark brown, pedipalps and carapace darkest; carinae of pedipalp darker; mesosoma, chelicerae, legs, telson, lighter yellow-orange. No discernible patterns. Metasoma quite slender, all segments longer than wide on female and male; chelal palm slender, width and depth essentially equal in dimension; dorsal patellar spur very well developed. Species quite smooth, exhibiting minimum granulation except for the pedipalp femur and patella carinae. The exceptionally slender and smooth metasoma are key diagnistic characters of this species. Telson elongated in shape; vesicle smooth. Aculeus with gradual curve; 4-5 pairs of setae on vesicle/aculeus juncture.
Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874)
Georgia, Syria, Turkey Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Romania, Russia, Slovenia and Yugoslavia.
?? ??
  • Scorpion going up to 4 cm. Resemble much seemingly E. germanus and thus also with E. alpha, from its color very dark (blackish brown).
Euscorpius naupliensis (C. L. Koch, 1837) Islands of Greece (Peloponnese).
?? ??
  • Scorpion more or less dark brown, almost black for all the body and the legs. Cut up to 4,5 cm
Euscorpius sicanus (C.L. Koch, 1837) Italia (Sardaigne, Sicilia), Malta, Greece, Tunisia, Libye, Egypt.
8-10 6-8
  • Euscorpius sicanus can be diagnosed as a small to medium sized species with somewhat thin metasoma. Number of trichobotria in series eb (=5) and eba (=4-5) are key diagnostic characters for this species.
Euscorpius tauricus (C.L. Koch, 1837) Ukraine.
?? ??
  • In search of informations
Euscorpius tergestinus (C.L. Koch, 1837) Austria, Croatia (coast), France (southeast & Corsica), Italy (north) Monaco, San Marino, Slovenia.
7-10 6-8
  • Medium sized species (3,5 cm) orange-brown in overall coloration, carapace and chelae darkest; chelicerae, telson, genital operculum, pectines and sterna yellow, dorsal carinae of metasomal usually pigmented, but great variability is present in different populations. Dorsal metasomal carinae distinctly granular; single inferior median carina usually visible on segment IV; ventroexternal carina of chela granulate to crenulate. Teslon highly swollen both laterally and ventrally; smooth. Aculeus with short abrupt curve, 6-7 pairs of setae at vesicle/aculeus juncture. Slight enlarged granule with setal pair present at juncture.

Subspecies of Euscorpius:

Euscorpius carpathicus (Linné, 1758)

  • Euscorpius carpathicus aegaeus Caporiacco, 1950 : Greece.
  • Euscorpius carpathicus candiota Birula, 1903 : Greece (Crete).
  • Euscorpius carpathicus croaticus Caporiacco, 1950 : Croatia.
  • Euscorpius carpathicus fanzagoi Simon, 1879 : France, ?Spain.
  • Euscorpius carpathicus ossae Caporiacco, 1950 : Greece.
  • Euscorpius carpathicus scaber Birula, 1903 : Greece.

Euscorpius flavicaudis (DeGeer, 1778)

  • Euscorpius flavicaudis flavicaudis (DeGeer, 1787) : Spain (Balearic Islands included), France (Corsica included), Italy (Sardinia included), North Africa (Algeria, Tunisia), introduced in England and Uruguay.
  • Euscorpius flavicaudis algeriacus (C. L. Koch, 1838) : Algeria.
  • Euscorpius flavicaudis cereris Bonacina & Revellini, 1986 : Italy.
  • Euscorpius flavicaudis galitae Caporiacco, 1950 : Tunisia.
  • Euscorpius flavicaudis massiliensis (C. L. Koch, 1837) : France.

Euscorpius germanus (C.L. Koch, 1837)

  • Euscorpius germanus germanus (C. L. Koch, 1837) : Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland.
  • Euscorpius germanus marcuzzii Valle & al. 1975 : Italy, Slovenia.

Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874)

  • Euscorpius mingrelicus mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874) : Georgia, Russia, Turkey
  • Euscorpius mingrelicus caporiaccoi Bonacina, 1980 : Bosnia Herzegovina, ?Montenegro, ?Serbia.
  • Euscorpius mingrelicus ciliciensis Birula, 1898 : Turkey.
  • Euscorpius mingrelicus dinaricus Caporiacco, 1950 : Bosnia Herzegovina, ?Montenegro, ?Serbia.
  • Euscorpius mingrelicus legrandi Lacroix, 1995 : Turkey.
  • Euscorpius mingrelicus ollivieri Lacroix, 1995 : Turkey.
  • Euscorpius mingrelicus phrygius Bonacina, 1980 : Turkey.
  • Euscorpius mingrelicus uludagensis Lacroix, 1995 : Turkey.

The Breeding

Temperature:

Temperature of 18 at 25°C with a loss of 4 at 8°C during the night, the winter to go down if possible towards 10°C. Euscorpius flavicaudis is the species, in south of the France, which lives more close to the man. One very often finds it in the houses, therefore you do not formalize too much to try to recreate temperature to him winter, it will be satisfied without problem with the temperature with your housing.

Food:

In its rather wet biotope, the most current prey is the woodlouse (Oniscus asellus). It is besides rather current to find this scorpion in the medium of its favorite preys. However, in breeding, the crickets of relatively average size to large average, will make the deal without any problem. For the young, the drosophilas will be necessary, except if you have the possiblity to give babies crickets.

Terrarium:

If you breed several Euscorpius together, envisage a terrarium of average size (30x20 for 10 adults maximum). Add also stones punts the ones on the others to make a pseudo wall, each one will find there its hiding place which will become its territory later. Hygroscopy: 40 to 80% according to the season, the summer the hygroscopy will be lower than the winter. This kind of scorpion does not dig a gallery, the level of compost must thus be rather relatively low, 4 cm will be enough. Some small plants will have come very well, thus well on, that a small not very deep feeding trough.

Sociability:

It is the kind of scorpion which one can raise in group without too much problem, but attention if ever food had suddenly missed, smallest Euscorpius would quickly make the expenses of this food shortage, even momentary, while being devoured by largest that them. However, sociability between the young is not good whole. The race with the growth, push them to canibalism, strongest being killed weakest, and weakest eating those which they moult and are thus without defense, even if they are a little larger than them.

Note:

Although very widespread in the south of France, this species of scorpion is not found very often high in our terrarium in France. It is the ideal scorpion to however begin. Many stockbreeders prefer to him other "exotic" species, however much more expensive and delicate to maintain alive.

References :

  • Fet Victor & Soleglad M. E., MORPHOLOGY ANALYSIS SUPPORTS PRESENCE OF MORE THAN ONE SPECIES IN THE "EUSCORPIUS CARPATHICUS" COMPLEX (SCORPIONES : EUSCORPIIDAE), 2002. Euscorpius N°3.
  • Fet Victor, Sissom W. David Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD, 2000. The New York Entomological Society.
  • Rein, Jan Ove , The Scorpion Files

Thanks : to Jan Ove Rein and Alexander Tietz for the pictures lent to illustrate this page.

Last update 10/10/2005
 

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