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Genus Hadrurus Thorell, 1876

   
Index of danger
Hadrurus genus is composed of:  
Hadrurus arizonensis Ewing, 1928 Arizona, California, Nevada. 32-37 24-31
  • Adults specimens up to 12 cm with dorsum of carapace and metasoma dark olive color except for broad, lunate, yellow marking covering interrocular area; dark markings extend anterolaterally through lateral eyes, this dark area is laterally bordered by narrow band of yellow; dark markings often lighter on last mesosomal segment. Metasoma with dorsal keels distinctly hirsute to unaided eye on segment III of male, this somewhat variable in females.
Hadrurus concolorous Stahnke, 1969 Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur and islands in the Gulf of California. 34-40 27-33
  • Variable species of Hadrurus in size and color, adults up to 12 cm. Forms local color races throughout range; entire body reddish yellow in most localities; on dark soils, and in areas of volcanic influence, with dark dorsal marking and dark metasomal segment V (similar to Hadrurus hirsutus). pedipalp palm basically yellow with light reddish brown fingers. In many areas the color is a continuous variable from the dark phase to the light concolorous phase. Adult males with conspicuous pair of glands visible externally on dorsum of telson at base of aculeus. Telson densely hirsute on all aspect, females with hairs distinctly shorter than on male. Space between inferior median keels of metasomal segments I to III with 0 to 5 stout hairs; inner surface of pedipalp palm with less than 8 long conspicuous hairs. Definite sexual dimorphism in caudal and telson hirsuteness, males with longer and more abundant hairs.
Hadrurus hirsutus (Wood, 1863) Arizona, Baja California Norte, California, Colorado, Nevada, Sonora desert. 28-35 22-27
  • Carapace and metasoma with dark olive central color, this laterally bordered by yellow, region anterior to ocular tubercule yellow, dark pigmentation does not extend to lateral eyes; metasomal segment V with contrasting dark pigment, this most not noticeable on ventral surface; pedipalp palm light yellow with light reddish fingers; body otherwise light yellow. Adult size up to 11 cm. Metasoma of most individuals with space between inferior median keels, without bristles, no segment with more than 5 such bristles; telson of adult male lacks externally visisble external glands at base of aculeus; internal surface of pedipalp palm with about 2 to 6 long hairs, usually males with more hairs than females; metasomal segment III not hirsute in either sex; male metasomal segments IV and V and telson distinctly more hirsute than those of female.
Hadrurus obscurus Williams, 1970 California. 34-37 24-30
  • Body pale yellow except for dark pigmentation on carapace and mesosoma; anterior region of carapace light yellow, but yellow extends to ocular tubercule only along median groove; pedipalp finger reddish brown. Inferior lateral keels smooth to slightly crenulate on metasoma I to III, serrate on IV and V; inferior median keels smooth to crenulate on I and II, irregularly crenulate on III, crenulate to serrate on IV; space between inferior median keels of segment I to III with many conspicuous stout hairs.
Hadrurus pinteri Stahnke, 1969 Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur and islands in the Gulf of California. 38-44 28-35
  • Large species of Hadrurus, adults up to 12 cm, with mesosoma and carapace brownish black. Juveniles and subadults with conspicuous bright yellow telson and sometimes with yellow mottling of dark metasoma. Pedipalp palm brownish yellow with dark reddish brown to black fingers. Vesicle densely hirsute except on superior surface. Metasoma with about 15 or more stout bristles in space between inferior median keels of segments I to III. Adult males with one pair of conspicuous oval glands on telson dorsum at base of aculeus.
Hadrurus spadix Stahnke, 1940 Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon and Utah. 38-39 30
  • Adults up to 11 cm. Conspicuously dark species of Hadrurus with dark olive to black color completely covering all dorsal surface of carapace and mesosoma; metasoma, telson and legs all yellow; pedipalp hands yellow with red dorsal keel areas, fingers dark reddish brown; ventral surface of body yellow. Metasoma with space between inferior median keels of segments I to III conspicuously hirsute, each segment with 10 to 20 stout bristles; adult males without externally visible oval glands on telson dorsum at base of aculeus; males with metasomal segments IV, V and telson slightly but distinctly more hirsute than those of female; dorsal surface of telson hirsute. Species very close to Hadrurus obscurus and Hadrurus pinteri.

The Breeding

Note: Hadrurus are the rare desert scorpions rather recommended to begin. So, they are not what there is of easier to raise, but they are resistant and can live very a long time. Attention nevertheless with the mycoses.

Temperature:

Hadrurus being scorpions living in the desert areas of the USA or Mexico, the temperatures will have to be hot the summer, we recommend at least 30°C, and soft the winter 18/20°C. A night, a fall of the temperatures is advised, if possible descend from 10°C the maximum temperature. For the young in full growth, do not hesitate to put them until 35°C.

Food:

The meals of these scorpions are composed of adult crickets, but also of locusts pilgrims, or cockroaches of average size. In its natural environment, Hadrurus lives in the middle of many of other scorpions (Smeringurus, Vaejovis, Paruroctonus...), also, considering its size, it very often sometimes happens to him to be the predator of these scorpions. For the young , the crickets of small sizes to averages will be enough amply.

Terrarium:

Obviously it needs terrarium of a desert type. A dry substrate, digs peat or sands to see even argillaceous ground, can be appropriate. However some Hadrurus live in the stony deserts and others rather sandy, also try to provide him the two parts. The decorations are not necessary, this kind of scorpion likes to arrange terrarium at its idea, if the ground is too flat it even will create small sand dunes and he wait to him behind while waiting for a prey. For the size, 20x30 is a minimum for an adult. Not too much moisture, and a very good ventilation are necessary because this species is very sensitive to the mycoses especially under our rather wet climates.

Sociability:

These scorpions are not too sociable, especially if the terrarium is too small. The females frequently attack the males, however if you have a sufficiently large terrarium (100x60 cm, or more), a small colony can live there without too much problem. Each one will dig there its burrow not dealing too much with the others. Of course, food will have to be in quantity sufficient for all the group.

Note:

A problem of growth of the young arises very often in our breeding. The question of moisture (not too much) and heat is very difficult to keep in our terrariums, with the result, that for the majority, the young die without to have reached 3rd instar, or then they vegetate at the 2nd instar..

References :

  • Fet, Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E 2000. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD . The New York Entomological Society.
  • Pocock, R. I., 1902. Arachnida, Scorpiones, Pedipalpi and Solifuge, Biologia Centrali-Americana, pp 1-45.
  • Rein, Jan Ove , The Scorpion Files
  • Williams, Stanley C. 1970. A systematic revision of the giant hairy-scorpion genus Hadrurus (Scorpionida: Vejovidae). Occ. Papers. California. Acad. Sci., 87: 1-62.
  • Williams, Stanley. C. 1980. Scorpions of Baja California, Mexico, and adjacent islands. Occ. Papers. California Acad. Sci., 135:1- 127.
Last update 07/06/2006
 

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