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Genus Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828

   
Index of danger
Heterometrus genus is composed of:  
Heterometrus barberi (Pocock, 1900) India, Myanmar (Burma). Unknown 11-12
  • Adulte female is 12,5 cm. long. Base color uniformly black, only manus of pedipalps orangish yellow. Chela not lobiform, its length to width ratio equals 2,2. Entire manus rugate (merging blunt granules) and without carinae. Patella of pedipalps witout pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace disc smooth, at margins granulate. Telson bulbous, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus beccaloniae Kovarík, 2004 India. Unknown 14-16
  • Adult female is up to 11 cm. long. Color uniformly black, only telson reddish yellow. Chela of pedipalp length to width ratio 2,38. Dorsal surface of manus granulate and/or tuberculate, with carinae. Patella of pedipalp granulate, without pronounced internal tubercle and with five carinae. Femur of pedipalps unusually wide, granulated and convex. Carapace with smooth disc and granulose margins. Mesosoma smooth. Telson hirsute, bulbous (in adults), vesicle longer than aculeus. Genital operculum large, in female about as wide or slightly wider than long.
Heterometrus bengalensis (C. L. Koch, 1841) India. 14-17 14-17
  • Adults are 9,5 to 11,5 cm. long Color of adults uniformly reddih brown to light brown. Male with chela, femur and patella of pedipalp relatively narrower and longer than in female. Chela not lobiform, its length to width ratio about 3,0 in male and 2,2 in female. Much of manus sparsely tuberculate, uneven, but without discrete granule and carinae, especially in male. Patella of pedipalp without pronunced internal tubercle. Carapace smooth, with granules only at margins. Telson hirsute, bulbous, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus cimrmani Kovarík, 2004 Thailand, Vietnam. 15-18 15-18
  • Adults are 9 to 11,5 cm. long. Base color of adults uniformly black to greenish black. Male has longer but not narrower femur and patella of pedipalp, and longer and narrower chela of pedipalp. Chela slightly lobiform, its length to width ration 2,8-3,0 in male and 2,1-2,4 in female. Male fixed fingers of pedipalp shorter than manus. Much of manus smooth, with punctae arranged in rows. patella of pedipalp with ponounced internal tubercle. Carapace with disc smooth and margins granulate. Telson hirsute, elognate, vesicle longer than aucleus.
Heterometrus cyaneus (C. L. Koch, 1836) Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Japan? (introduced?) 12-16 12-16
  • Adults are 9,5 to 11,5 cm. long. Base color of adults uniformly black to greenish black, only telson may be reddish brown. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela lobiform, its length to width ratio in adults between 2,0 and 2,3 in both sexes. Dorsal surface of manus tuberculate. Carinae weakly indicated. Patella of pedipalp without prononced internal tubercle. Carapace with disc smooth, at sides may be granulate. Telson hirsute, bulbous, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus flavimanus (Pocock, 1900) India. 19-22 19-22
  • Adults 11-15 cm. long. Base color uniformly reddish brown, manus of pedipalp, legs and telson reddish to yellow. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela strongly lobiform, its length to width ratio about 1,7 in both sexes. Entire manus covered by large, rounded granules that do not form true carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace usually with disc smooth and all margins granulate and tuberculate (in some specimens entire carapace sparsely granulate). Telson bulbous, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus fulvipes (C. L. Koch, 1837) India. 12-18 12-18
  • Adults to 10 cm long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown to black, legs and telson yellow to yellowish brown, always lighter colored than body. Male has longer femur and patella of pedipalp. Chela lobiform, its ratio between 1,7 and 1,9 in both sexes. Male and female chela different shape but approximaely same width. Entire manus covered by large, rounded granules but devoid of carinae. Patella of pedipalp without prononced internal tubercle. Carapace of juveniles and some females with disc smooth, at margin granulate and anteriorly tuberculate. Males and some females with entire carapace sparsely granulate. Telson hirsute, vesicle longer than or as long as aculeus.
Heterometrus gravimanus (Pocock, 1894) India, Sri Lanka. 12-15 12-15
  • Adults 8 to 10 cm long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown, legs and telson usually lighter colored than body. Male has slightly longer femur and patella of pedipalp. Chela lobiform, its length to width ratio between 2,0 and 2,2. Entire manus covered by rounded granules and with five carinae mainly in anterolateral part. Patella of pedipalp smooth, without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace smooth and glossy. Telson elongate, vesicle shorter than aculeus.
Heterometrus indus (DeGeer, 1778) Sri Lanka. 11-15 11-15
  • Adults are 9 to 13 cm long. Color of adults uniformly reddish black to greenish black. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela hirsute, lobiform, its adult length to width ratio between 1,7 and 2,0. Entire manus covered by rounded granules that may merge and appear as rows. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace usually smooth and glossy, occasionally with granules at margins. Second metasomal segment longer than wide. Vesicle of telson usually longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus kanarensis (Pocock, 1900) India. 13-14 10-13
  • Adults 12 to 15 cm long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown to black, only manus and telson may be lighter colored or occasionally black. Male has long but not narrower chela of pedipalp than female. Other segments of pedipalps do not show sexual dismorphism. Chela length to width ratio 2,35 in male and 2,1-2,25 in females. Chela lobiform and covered with dense, long setae. Dorsal surface of pedipalp manus relatively smooth, with effaced tubercles, without carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace usually smooth and glossy occasionally with sparse marginal granules and anterior tubercles. Telson densely hirsute, elongate, vesicle shorter than the aculeus.
Heterometrus keralaensis Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 India. 13 Unknown
  • Male of large size, 11 cm. long. Body almost entirely black except reddish brown, manus of pedipalp and yellowish brown telson. Chelicera yellowish brown on basal segment. Legs blackish except yellowish brown on tarsus. Pectines clear yellow. Ventral surface blakish brown. Carapace and tergites weakly granular. Chelicera smooth. Pedipalp stout but slender and much long, manus also norrow and long. Legs granular on femur and patella. Pectines well developed. Tergites without carinae. Sternite smooth. Metasoma strong, all segments carinated. Telson with globular vesicle and strong aculeus.
Heterometrus laoticus Couzijn, 1981 Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam. 15-19 15-19
  • Adults 9 to 12,5 cm. long. Base color of adults uniformly black, only manus and telson may be reddish brown. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela lobiform, its length to width ratio 2-2,3 in both sexes. Manus smooth, with or without smooth carninae, sparsely and finely punctate. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced inernal tubercle. Carapace and mesosoma smooth without granules. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus latimanus (Pocock, 1894) India. ?? 13-15
  • Adults are 7 to 10,5 cm. long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown to black. Legs may be lighter colored than body. Chela lobiform, rounded and convex, its adult female length to width ratio 1,6-1,7. Entire manus covered by rounded granules, without carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced inernal tubercle. Carapace usually smooth and glossy, but granules always present anteriorly and occasionally on other margins. Vesicle of telson usually shorter or as long as aculeus.
Heterometrus liophysa (Thorell, 1888) Indonesia. 13-18 13-18
  • Adults are 11 to 14 cm. long. Base color of adults unifomrly black to reddish brown. Male with chela, femur and patella of pedipalp norrower and longer than in female. Male fingers of pedipalp very long. Fixed finger longer or at least as long as manus. Chela slightly lobiform, in male widest basally and markedly narrowing torward fingers, its length to width ratio ca. 3,0 in male, ca. 2,2 in female. Much of manus smooth. Patella of pedipalp with pronounced inernal tubercle. Carapace granulate. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus liurus (Pocock, 1897) India. ?? 10-14
  • Adults less than 8 cm. long. Color uniformly reddish brown, legs and telson yellow to yellowish or reddish brown, always lighter colored than body. Chela slightly lobiform, hirsute, its length to width ratio 2,2-2,5. Dorsal surface of pedipalp manus without carinae, with large, rounded granules of uneven size, some of wich may merge. Patella of pedipalp without conspicous inernal tubercle. Carapace smooth and glossy, on margins sometimes sparsely granulose and anterriorly tuberculate. Telson hirsute, bulbous, with vesicle markedly longer than aculeus. Genital operculum large, approximately as wide as long.
Heterometrus longimanus (Herbst, 1800) Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapur. 12-18 12-18
  • Adults 9 to 14 cm. long. Base color of adults uniformly black, only manus and telson may be reddish brown. Male with chela, patella and femur of pedipalp norrower and longer than in female. Male fingers of pedipalp very long. Fixed fingers longer or at least as long as manus of pedipalp. Chela not lobiform in male, slightly lobiform in female, its length to width ratio 3,3-4,4 in male, ca. 2,4 in female. Much of manus smooth, sparsely tuberculate. Patella of pedipalp with pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace usually with disc smooth and margins granulate. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle as long as or longer than vesicle.
Heterometrus madraspatensis Pocock, 1900 India. 12-18 12-18
  • Adults are 7 to 10 cm. long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown to black, legs ans telson yellow to yellowish or reddish brown, always lighter colored than body. Male has longer femur and patella of pedipalp than female. Chela lobiform, in male narrower than in female, its length to width ratio 1,7-1,9 in females, and 2,0-2,5 in males. Entire manus covered by large, rounded granules but devoid of carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace of juveniles and some females with disc smooth and margins granulate and anteriorly tuberculate. Adult males and some females with entire carapace sparsely granulated. Telson hirsute, vesicle as long as or longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus mysorensis Kovarík, 2004 India. 16-17 unknown
  • Adulte male about 12 cm. long. Female unknown. Color uniformly reddish brown, only telson and leg tarsomeres reddish yellow. Male assumed to have femur, pattella and chela of pedipalp longer than female. Chela slightly lobed and strongly hirsute, its length to width ratio 2,8. Dorsal surface of pedipalp manus bears rounded granules of varying size that form elevated rows. Patella of pedipalp without conspicous inernal tubercle. Disc of carapace smooth and glossy, margins finely granulose and anteriorly slightly tuberculate. Telson hirsute, with vesicle as long as aculeus.
Heterometrus nepalensis Kovarík, 2004 Nepal. 14-15 unknown
  • Adult male about 8,5 cm. long. Color uniformly reddish black, only telson lighter colored. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela hirsute, lobiform its adult length to width ratio 2,2. Entire manus covered by ronded granules. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace smooth, with granules only at margins. Second metasomal segment of male wider than long. Telson bulbous, vesicle longer than aculeus..
Heterometrus petersii (Thorell, 1876) Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia?, Philippines, Thailand?, Vietnam. 15-19 15-19
  • Adults 9 to 12,5 cm long. Base color of adults uniformly black, only manus and telson may be reddish brown. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Male has more pronounced tooth on movable finger of pedipalp. Chela rounded, its length to width ratio 2-2,4 in both sexes. Much of manus smooth, with smooth carinae mainly on margins. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace disc smooth and margins granulate. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus phipsoni (Pocock, 1893) India. 12-16 10-15
  • Adults are 8,5 to 13 cm. long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown to black. Male has longer but not narrower femur and patella of pedipalp and longer, usually narrower chela than female. Chela slightly lobiform and strongly hirsute, its length to width ratio 2,5-3 in males and 2,2-2,5 in females. Dorsal surface of manus with large, rounded granules of uneven size, which may merge but do not form carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace smooth and glossy, only anterior part slightly tberculate and margins occasionally with sparse granules. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle as long as or longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus rolciki Kovarik, 2004 India. 10-12 10-12
  • Adults are 8 to 10 cm long. Base color of adults uniformly reddish brown to black, telson may be lighter colored. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela slightly lobiform and covered with long setae, its adult length to width ratio 2,3 in both sexes. Dorsal surface of manus smooth and uneven to slightly rugate, without granules and tubercles. Patella of pedipalp without conspicous inernal tubercle. Carapace and metaoma with entire surface granulate. Telson hirsute and elongate, vesicle as long as aculeus.
Heterometrus scaber (Thorell, 1876) India. 7-12 7-12
  • Adults 10 to 13 cm. long. Base color of adults uniformly reddish brown to black, manus and telson may be lighter colored or manus may be black. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela lobiform and covered with long setae, its adult length to width ratio 1,7-2 in both sexes. Dorsal surface of manus relatively smooth, with effaced tubercles, without granule and carinae. Patella of pedipalp without conspicous inernal tubercle. Carapace and metaoma with entire surface granulate, only sternites smooth. Telson hirsute, vesicle as long as or longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus sejnai Kovarík, 2004 Thailand. 13-14 13-14
  • Adults 8 to 11,5 cm.long. Base color of adults uniformly reddish black with telson reddish brown; metasoma may be lighter colored than body. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela lobiform, its adult length to width ratio ca. 2,2 in both sexes. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace either entirely granulate or disc smooth. Telson hirsute, bulbous vesicle as long as aculeus.
Heterometrus serratus (Pocock, 1900)
??
 
  • In search of informations
Heterometrus spinifer (Ehrenberg, 1828) India, Malaysia, Thailand 15-19 15-19
  • Adults 10 to 13,5 cm. long. Base color of adult uniformly black, only manus and telson may be reddish brown. In juveniles base color reddish brown, telson may be yellow. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela slightly lobiform, its adult length to wirdth ratio 2,4-2,6 in both sexes. Much of manus smooth, wit smooth carinae forming irregular reticulation. Patella of pedipalp with pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace with disc smooth and margins granulate. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle loger than aculeus.
Heterometrus swammerdami Simon, 1872 India, Sri Lanka. 16-20 16-20
  • Large scorpions, adults are 13 to 18 cm. long. Base color uniformly reddish brown to reddish black. Juveniles may be red with yellow telson. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela strongly lobiform, its length to width ratio 1,6-1,8 in both sexes. Entire manus covered by large rounded granule that do not form true carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace disc smooth, margins and posterior portion granulate, and anterior portion granulate and tuberculate; occasionally entire surface sparsely granulate. Telson bulbous, vesicle as long as or longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus thorellii (Pocock, 1892) Myanmar. 13-18 13-18
  • Adults 9 to 12 cm. long. Base color of adults uniformly brownish to black, only manus and telson may be reddish brown. Male with chela, femur and patella of pedipalp narrower and longer than in female. Chela not lobiform in male, slightly lobiform in female, its length to width ratio 3,8-5,5 in male, 2,6-3,1 in female. Much of manus reticulate, sparsely punctate and with smooth carinae, without granules. Patella of pedipalp with pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace usually with disc smooth and margins granulate. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle longer than aculeus.
Heterometrus tristis (Henderson, 1919) India. ?? ??
  • Females larger (approx. 10 cm. long) than males (up to 7,5 cm. long). Males darker than females. Female yellowish brown but more darker on metasomal segments except yellowish vesicle. Chelicera yellowish on basal segment and reddish on carinae and fingers. Legs yellowish. Carapace weakly granular. Tergites and sternites smooth. Chelicera smooth. Pedipalp strong, stout, carinated, granular and manus flat and enlarged. Legs weakly granular onlyon femur. Pectines well developed. Metasoma sout, all segments carinated. Telson with strong and stout aculeus. Aculeus as long as vesicle in male but shorter in female.
Heterometrus ubicki Kovarík, 2004 India. 15-19 14-17
  • Adults 7 to 9 cm long. Color uniformly reddish brow to black, legs yellow and telson yellow to reddish yellow. Male has femur, patella and chela of pedipalp longer than female. Chela hirsute, its length to width ratio ca. 3,3 in males and 2,2 in females. Dorsal surface of manus tuberculate, without carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace either entirely granulate or disc smooth. Telson hirsute, bulbous, vesicle longer than aculeus. Genital operculum large, in female about as wide as long or slightly wider than long.
Heterometrus wroughtoni (Pocock, 1899) India, Pakistan. 13-17 13-17
  • Adults 9,5 to 13 cm long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown. Juveniles lighter colored and usually with yellow legs. Sexual dimorphism in proportions of pedipalps not noticeable. Chela lobiform, its length to width ratio 1,8-2. Entire manus covered by rounded granules which may merge and dorsally form up to five usually incomplete rows. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace with disc smooth, granulose margins and tuberculate anterior portion. Telson hirsute, elongate, vesicle usually shorter than aculeus..
Heterometrus xanthopus (Pocock, 1897) India, Pakistan. 13-16 13-16
  • Adults 6 to 8 cm long. Color of adults uniformly reddish brown, legs and telson yellow to yellowish or reddish brown, always lighter colored than body. Male has femur, patella and chela of pedipalp longer than female. Chela lobiform, in male narrower, its length to width ratio 2,1 in males and 1,6 in females. Entire manus covered by rounded minute granules that may merge but devoid of carinae. Patella of pedipalp without pronounced internal tubercle. Carapace in juveniles with disc smooth, margins granulate and anterior portion tuberculate; in adults entire carapace sparsely granulated. Vesicle of telson as long as or longer than vesicle..

The Breeding

 

Temperature:

These scorpions are, for the majority, animals living in burrows. The temperature inside these burrows is relatively stable because of their depth. In breeding one will be satisfied with 20 with 28°C. One will take the minimal temperature for the winter or the night, the maximum one for the summer or the day. The Heterometrus young people need maximum heat in order to have a regular growth.

Food:

They are good eaters, relatively not difficult. For an adult scorpion, even the large cockroaches will pose only little problem to this kind of scorpion. Of course, adult crickets and locusts make the deal as well. Although I of it is not very in favour, the small mammals, mouse kind, can have a meal for several weeks, just as for the small reptiles, lizards kind. For the young scorpions, the crickets will make the base of the meal. One can put to them without problem of the preys almost as large as them, useless to put small cricket, pass directly to the average crickets. The frequency of the meals depends for many the size preys but also that the scorpion and its age. On average, the females eat much more than the males, give 2 to 3 adult crickets per week for a specimen of more than 10 cm.

Terrarium:

Of big size for the adults with much of wet peat, and moss (Carex, Sphagnum) are welcome, as well as small plants if you have a good luminosity. Rocks punts and barks also are very appreciated. High hygroscopy (80 to 95%). A water dish is very advised. The height of the substrate will be according to your desire, because if you put a good height of peat, your Heterometrus will generally be in their burrow and thus not visible. With less peat, Heterometrus will hide under the pieces of cork or the stones. The quantity of peat in a terrarium will also be used for retaining and redistributing a good relative humidity. One council to vaporize water without too much limestone (but by avoiding rainwater of the large cities), at least twice per month for a large terrarium and of once per week for a smaller vat.

Sociability:

Heterometrus are sociable scorpions, between of the same specimens species but also between specimens of the Heterometrus kind. One can as note as they support well the company of Pandinus imperator. However, to our knowledge, it is not possible to obtain hybrid specimens. One will nevertheless pay great attention because it is possible to find specimens of Heterometrus very aggressive not supporting other scorpions. The young people can be to keep in group without big problem. Some cases of cannibalism are noted but only in the event of lack of food. However, in order to supervise well the growth and the catch of food, we advise to separate the young people and individually to put them out of pot. This will avoid seeing the livestock being reduced in the event of forgets.

Note:

Heterometrus are not scorpions having a venom able to kill a human being. However, some species can cause serious lesions in the event of puncture. With the arrival in our terrariums of new specimens discovered recently, we advise the greatest prudence

References :

  • Fet, Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD, 2000. The New York Entomological Society.
  • Keegan, Hugh L., Scorpion of Medical Importance.1980.
  • Kovarík Frantisek, EUSCORPIUS N° 15, 2004.
  • Pocock, R. I., THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, INCLUDING CEYLONG AND BURMA. ARACHNIDA, 1900. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.
  • Rein, Jan Ove , The Scorpion Files
  • Tikader, B. K., Bastawade, D.B. FAUNA OF INDIA, SCORPIONS Vol. 3. 1983
Last update 07/30/2005
 

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