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Genus Orthochirus Karsch, 1891

   
Index of danger
Orthochirus genus is composed of:  
Orthochirus afghanus Kovarík, 2004 Afganistan. Unknown 17-19
  • Adults are about 3,6 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV-V ventrally ponstuate and without median carinae. Spaces among punctate smooth except for anterior margin of metasomal segment IV. Entire metasoma glabrous (short, thin setae may issue from some punctate). Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments mesially smooth. Several solitary granules may be present on segments I, II and V. Mesosoma and metasoma black, telson reddish brown. Femur and patella of legs and pedipalps black or yellowish grey, chela more slightly colored. Manus of pedipalp darker than fingers. Movable finger bear 8 or 9 rows of granules that have internal and external granules and 2 or 3 distal granules.
Orthochirus aristidis (Simon, 1882) Djibouti, Somalia.  
  • In search of informations
Orthochirus bicolor (Pocock, 1897) Afghanistan?, India, Pakistan? ?? 18
  • Adults attain 4 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventraly without carinae and deeply punctate. Spaces among punctate smooth and without hairs. Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments bears conspicuous pointed granules arranged in median belt with wider anterior and posterior ends. Metasomal segments I-III yellow to yellowish brown, IV-V black. Legs mostly yellow, only femur may bear dark spots. Movable fingers bear 8 or 9 rows of granules that have internal and external granules and 4 distal granules.
Orthochirus danielleae (Lourenço & Vachon, 1997) Afganistan.  
  • In search of informations
Orthochirus erardi * (Lourenço & Vachon, 1997) Afganistan, Pakistan.  
  • In search of informations
Orthochirus feti Kovarík, 2004 Uzbekistan. 22-23 18-20
  • Adults are about 4,2 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally punctate and without carinae. Space among punctae smooth, without granules. Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments mesially smooth, without granules. Entire metasoma and telson densely hirsute. Mesosoma ad metasoma black, telson reddih brown, femur and patella of legs and pedipalps brown to black, tibia of legs and chela of pedipalps brownish yellow. Movable fingers of pedipalps bear 8 or 9 rows of granules with internal granules and without external granules. Movable fingers with 3-5 distal granules.
Orthochirus flavescens (Pocock, 1897) India. 21 ??
  • Small scorpions rarely attain 3 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventraly without carinae and deeply punctate. Spaces among punctae nearly smooth and without hair. Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments bear median strip of densely spaced, pointed granules. Mesosoma and metasoma brown to reddish brown. Legs and pedipalps yellow. Femur of pedipalps with four granulose to crenulate carinae. Patella and chela smooth, with smooth carinae conspicuous namely on fixed finger. Movable fingers bear 7 or 8 rows of granules that have internal and external granules and 3 distal granules.
Orthochirus fuscipes (Pocock, 1900) India, Iran, Pakistan. 21-24 19-22
  • Metasomal segments IV and V ventraly without carinae and deeply punctate, dorsally weakly punctate only on margins and lacking punctae on smooth median surface. Median area of metasomal segent V may be in part granulated. Spaces among punctae smooth, dorsally as well as ventrally without granules. Entire metasoma glabrous (very short, thin setae may issue from punctae). Mesosoma and metasoma dark brown to black, I-II metasomal segments may be more lightly colored. Legs and pedipalps predominantly yellow, femur grayish green or black, patella grayish yellow or yellow. Movable fingers of pedipalps bear 8 or 9 rows of granules with internal and external granules and 2 to 4 distal granules.
Orthochirus gromovi Kovarík, 2004 Turkmenistan. 17-20 15-18
  • Adults are about 3,5 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventraly without carinae and deeply punctate. Spaces among punctae smooth, without granules. Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments mesially smooth, without granules. Entire metasoma and telson hirsute. Mesosoma and metasoma black, telson reddish brown, legs yellow, pedipalps yellow to greenish yellow. Movable fingers of pedipalps bear 8 or 9 rows of granules with internal granules and without external granules. Movable fingers with 3-5 distal granules.
Orthochirus heratensis Kovarík, 2004 Afganistan. 18-21 15-17
  • Adults males attain 3 cm. long and females are up to 4 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally punctate and without carinae. Spaces among punctae smooth, without granules. Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments medially smooth, without granules. Metasoma and telson hirsute, posterior margin ot metasomal segments IV and V with row of horizontal hairs. Mesosoma and metasoma black, telson reddish brown. Legs and pedipalps yellow, femur and patella may be yellowish green. Movable fingers of pedipalps with 8 or 9 rows of granules, without external granules, with internal granules, and with 2 or 3 distal granules.
Orthochirus innesi Simon, 1910 Algeria, Egypt, Morocco. 17-19 15-16
  • Adults are about 3 cm. long. Metasoma and mesosoma black to blackish green, telson reddish brown. Pedipalps bicolor, femur blackish, patella brownish, chela and finger of chela pale yellow. Legs are bicolor too. Metasomal segments IV and V punctate but whitout carinae. Segment V definitely longer than broad. Vesicle of telson punctate.
Orthochirus iranus Kovarík, 2004 Iran. 19-21 17-18
  • Adults males are up to 3 cm. long, and females close to 4 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally punctate and without carinae. Dorsal surface of metasomal segments smooth execpt for segment V, which bears median row of minute granules that widens in posterior half. Spaces among punctae on ventral surface smooth, only metasomal segment IV may be sparsely granulated. Entire metasomal glabrous (very short, thin setae may issue from punctae). Mesosoma and metasoma black. Telson reddish brown. femur and patela of legs and pedipalps black, chela of pedipalps and tibia of legs pale yellow to yellowish brown. Movable finger of pedipalps bear 8 or 9 rows of granules with internal and external granules and 4 or 5 distal granules.
Orthochirus iraqus Kovarík, 2004 Irak. 21 21
  • Very small scorpions, adults male are up to 2 cm. long, and females about 3 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally without carinae and distinctly punctate. Dorsal surface of metasomal segments delimited by two lateral carinae, smooth without punctae, with sparse granules only in postero-median part of segment V. Ventral surface punctate, space among punctae smooth. Entire metasoma glabrous (very short, thin setae may issue from punctae). Metasoma and mesosoma black. Telson reddish brown. Femur and patella of legs and pedipalps reddish brown, tibia of legs and chela of pedipalps yellow to reddish yellow. Movable finger of pedipalps bear 7 or 8 row of granules with external and internal granules and 4 distal granules.
Orthochirus jalalabadensis Kovarík, 2004 Afganistan. 20-23 16-21
  • Most adults are about 3,3 cm. long, but some females may reach 4,2 cm. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally without median carinae and usually only shallowly punctate. Space among punctae granulated equally on segments IV and V. Entire metasoma glabrous (short, thin setae may issue from punctae). Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments mesially smooth. Several solitary granules may be present. Females with mesosoma and metasoma black, telson brown to reddish brown, legs yellow, and pedipalps yellowish grey. Males with mesosoma and metasomal segments I-IV yellow, metasomal segments V and carapace dark brown to black, and egs and pedipalps light yellow. Movable fingers bear 8 or 9 rows of granules with external and internal granules and 2 or 3 distal granules.
Orthochirus krishnai Tikader & bastawade, 1983 India. ?? 22
  • Scorpion deep blackish blue colored, medium sized (for an Orthochirus...), 4,5 cm, thickly granular on carapace and mesosoma, caudal region thick, incrassate and all segments covered with pits, telson reddish and pyriform. Appendage dark on femur and patella white, clear yellow on tibia and tarsus. Pectines well developed. Mesosomal sternites III with yellow triangular spot on posterior margin. Last mesosomal sternite provided with two pairs of smooth carinae.
Orthochirus monodi (Lourenço & Vachon, 1997) Afganistan.  
  • In search of informations
Orthochirus pallidus (Pocock, 1897) Pakistan. Unknown 16
  • Adults 3,5 cm. long. Yellowish in color but darker on metasomal segments. Carapace and mesosoma finely granular but carapace smooth on lateral portion of interocular region. No carinae on carapace, mesosomal tergites with only median carina. Metasomal segments weakly granular, carinated and posterior segments covered with many pits. Telson pyriform, provided with few pits. Appendages yellow, coxa of the appendages smooth. Pectines welle developed. Last mesosomal sternite provided with two pairs of weakly granular carinae.
Orthochirus samrchelsis Kovarík, 2004 Afganistan. 22-23 18-19
  • Adults are about 3,5 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally without median carinae and punctate. Spaces among punctae smooth (only in one juvenile with scattered granules). Entire metasoma glabrous (short, thin setae may issue from some punctae). Dorsal surface of metasomal segment IV mesially smooth (several solitary granules may be present). Mesosoma and metasoma black, telson reddish brown, legs and pedipalps yellow to yellowish grey. Movable fingers bear 9-10 rows of granules with internal and external granules and 2 or 3 distal granules.
Orthochirus scrobiculosus (Grube, 1873) Afganistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. 19-20 15-18
  • Scorpions adults attain 3,5 cm. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally punctate without carinae. Spaces among punctae smooth, without granules. Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments mesially smooth, without granules. Entire metasoma glabrous (very short, thin setae may issue from punctae). Mesosoma and metasoma black, telson reddish brown, legs yellow, pedipalps yellow to greenish yellow. Movable fingers of pedipalps bear 8-10 rows of granules with internal granules witout esternal granules. Movable fingers with 2-5 distal granules.
Orthochirus sobotniki Kovarík, 2004 Iran. Inconnu 21-23
  • Males adults are about 3 cm. long, and females are up to 4 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally punctate and without carinae. Spaces among punctae smooth, without granules. Entire metasoma glabrous (short, thin setae may issue from punctae). Dorsal surface of all metasomal segment mesially smooth, without granules (several scattered granules may be present on segment V). Mesosoma and metasoma black, telson reddish brown, femur of pedipalp gray. In adults legs and pedipalps yellow, in juveniles femur of legs and pedipalps black. Movable finger od pedipalps bear 8 rows of granules with internal and external granules and 2 distal granules.
Orthochirus varius Kovarík, 2004 Iran. 22-23 21
  • Small scorpions, males range between 2 and 2,5 cm. long, and females are up to 3,5 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally without carinae and shallowly punctate (punctation absent in some males). Spaces among punctae smooth, without granules. Entire metasoma glabrous (short, thin setae may issue from punctae). Dorsal surface of all metasomal segment smooth, without granules and with lateral granulated carinae. %esosoma and metasoma brownish or greenish black, telson reddish brown, femur and most of patella og legs and pedipalps greenish grey to black, tibia yellow to greenish grey or dark brown. Movable fingers of pedipalps bear 7-9 rows of granules. With internal and external granules and 2 distal granules.
Orthochirus zagrorensis Kovarík, 2004 Iran. 21-22 18
  • Male adult is 2,8 cm. long, and the females are about 4,5 cm. long. Metasomal segments IV and V ventrally punctate and without carinae. Spaces among punctae smooth, without granules. Metasoma ventrally glabrous (short, thin setae may issue from punctae), dorsolateraly may bear marginal row of hairs. Dorsal surface of all metasomal segments mesially smooth, without granules. Mesosoma and metasoma black, telson reddish brown to black, femur and patella of legs and pedipalps black, tibia of legs yellow to yellowish green, manus of pedipalp black, fingers yellow to yellowish green. Movable fingers pf êdipalps bear 8 or 9 rows of granules with internal and external granules and 2 distal granules.

* Note: According to Kovarík, Orthochirus erardi could be a synonym of Orthochirus fuscipes.

The Breeding

 

Temperature:

Orthochirus are, for the majority, of the scorpions living in desert medium. They thus tolerate very strong temperatures, but also of the periods with negative temperatures. In our breedings, the temperatures will have to thus be of at least 30°C for the summer, with a fall of temperature of 10°C the night, and if possible 15°C for the winter period, with a possible fall with 10°C. A winter pause would be rather beneficial for this kind of small scorpions.

Food:

Considering the size of the adults specimen, on average 3 cm, we advise you to use micro-crickets. However, we think that some ants can nourish Orthochirus, in the same way for the large black drosophila (D. melanogaster). For the young people (stage II), the drosophilas of small sizes (red Drosophilas) will be very useful, one can also try to give Collembola.

Terrarium:

The terrariums will be arid types, with a coarse ground, or a mixture of sand/peat (70/30). They are not digger scorpions, therefore it is absolutely necessary to put to them hiding-places (stones, barks etc.). For the hygroscopy, we advise a value bordering the 30% for the summer, and 60% for the winter. obviously, a water point will have to be placed at the disposal of time with other (1 X per month). It will have to be made safe, i.e. with gravel or little balls of clay inside, in order to avoid the drownings.

Sociability:

The sociability of this species is not very conclusive, a significant cannibalism having been noted. It is to better insulate the specimens and to put them in presence only for the mating. One will take care of the first contacts between the male and the female at the time of the reproductions. It is nevertheless possible to have a group in a large terrarium (20 X 15 cm minimum), one will decrease the factor cannibalism while nourishing and by watering the group correctly. However, there will be some losses from time to time.

Note:

Orthochirus is a species which one finds more and more in the breedings amateurs. O. scrobiculosus and O. innesi are the species most usually met. It is nevertheless necessary to announce that the lifespan of the adult specimens is very short in breeding, seldom not exceeding 18 months.

References :

  • Fet, Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD, 2000. The New York Entomological Society.
  • Kovarík Frantisek, EUSCORPIUS N° 16, 2004.
  • Levy G., Amitai P., FAUNA PALESTINA, ARACHNIDA I : SCORPIONES. 1980
  • Pocock, R. I., THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, INCLUDING CEYLONG AND BURMA. ARACHNIDA, 1900. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.
  • Rein, Jan Ove , The Scorpion Files
  • Tikader, B. K., Bastawade, D.B. FAUNA OF INDIA, SCORPIONS Vol. 3. 1983
  • Vachon, Maxime, ETUDES SUR LES SCORPIONS, 1951. Institut Pasteur d'Algerie.
Last update 07/30/2005
 

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