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Genus Parabuthus (Pocock, 1890)

   
Index of danger
Parabuthus genus is composed of:  
Parabuthus brevimanus Thorell, 1876 South Africa, Angola, Namibia 28-32 21-25
  • Parabuthus of small size, up to 4,8 cm for a male and 5,7 cm for a female. Of a yellow ochre uniform color, but in some areas it can be much darker (chestnut chocolate).
Parabuthus calvus Purcell, 1898 South Africa.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus capensis (Ehrenberg, 1831) South Africa, Namibia ?. ?? ??
  • Scorpion of average size, a little more than 10 cm for a female and a little more 8 for a male. Color going of the ochre yellow to brown the blackish according to areas.
Parabuthus distridor Lamoral, 1980 South Africa.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus gracilis Lamoral, 1979 Namibia. 21-25 22-23
  • One of smallest Parabuthus, up to 5,2 cm for a male and 6 cm for a female. The color is a chestnut average chocolate with the yellow half of the legs straw. Presence of a darker trianglar spot between the median and side eyes.
Parabuthus gravimanus Pocock, 1895 Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Asia : Yemen.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus granulatus (Ehrenberg, 1831) South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Kenya ?, Namibia. 28-35 24-32
  • Male can reach 12 cm and the female 16 cm. Colors changing according to areas, go of the brown mahogany with the legs yellow ochre to the blackish brown with the legs dark mahogany with brown chocolate.
Parabuthus heterurus Pocock, 1899 Ethiopia, Somalia.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus hunteri Pocock, 1895 Egypt, Soudan.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus kalaharicus Lamoral, 1977 South Africa, Namibia. 22-27 18-20
  • Scorpion of average, male size and female bordering 8 cm. Color chestnut dark chocolate, with the tergite a little more blackish. Clearer legs on half, yellow color straw with yellow ochre.
Parabuthus kraepelini Werner, 1902 Namibia. 33-36 29-32
  • Size for a male which can go up to 9 cm and 12 cm for a female. Color of the body clear mahogany to brown chocolate, with the legs clearer drawing on the yellow straw.
Parabuthus kuanyamarum Monard, 1937 South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe. 28-32 20-24
  • Parabuthus of small size, 5 cm for a male and 5,6 cm for a female. Of a color uniformly light brown constant with the legs and the telson more clearly.
Parabuthus laevifrons (Simon, 1888) South Africa, Botswana ?, Namibia. 36-41 31-36
  • Scorpion of average size, count 7,5 cm for a male and 10 cm for a female. The body as well as the the first orange segment of the tail of color brown, the last 2 darker segments (brown dark with black). Legs and pedipalps yellow straw with orange yellow.
Parabuthus liosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828)
Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Soudan, Tanzania. Asia : Saudi Arabia Yemen.
 
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus maximus Werner, 1913 Tanzania.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus mixtus Borelli, 1925 Somalia.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus mossambicensis (Peters, 1861) South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe. 33-41 29-36
  • Scorpion exceeding 8 cm for the female, and the male a little less than 7 cm. The tergites are color chocolate, with a range blackish. The legs and the pedipalps are light brown (camel). The first segments of the tail slightly more clearly than the 2 last.
Parabuthus muelleri Prendini 2000 Namibia. 36-41 31-32
  • Parabuthus of average size, 6 cm for a female and 7, 5 for a male . Color, light brown (canelle) with the last two segments of the tail darker, color reddish brown, pedipalps and legs color reddish brown (clay) but more clearly than the body and especially the vesicle.
Parabuthus namibensis Lamoral, 1979 Namibia. 42-47 40-41
  • Scorpion which can reach 10 cm, especially for the females and 8 cm for the males. Color brown means on the whole of the body and the first segments, and brown chocolate for the 2 last. The legs are clearer than the body, yellow straw. Attention, in some areas this scorpion is much clearer, but the last 2 segments will be increasingly darker.
Parabuthus nanus Lamoral, 1979 South Africa, Namibia. 23-25 23-25
  • The smallest Parabuthus. Its size goes 3 cm for a male to almost 4 cm louse the female. Color chestnut average chocolate with the hands and the legs slightly darker.
Parabuthus neglectus Purcell, 1899 South Africa, Namibia.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus pallidus Pocock, 1895 Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus planicauda (Pocock, 1889) South Africa.  
  • In search of informations
Parabuthus raudus (Simon, 1888) South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe. 38-50 34-45
  • Great species in Parabuthus , the male which can reach 10 cm and the female 13 cm. Color of the body dark brown mahogany to very dark chocolate. Last segment of the tail brown, and vesicle almost black, pedipalps light brown orange, legs more or less orange yellow. Some specimens are more or less clear according to the origin.
Parabuthus schlechteri Purcell, 1899 South Africa, Namibia. 44-52 38-45
  • Large scorpion which can reach 11 cm in the males and more than 13 cm in the females. Color of the very dark, maroon body almost black with the tergites a little more clearly. Pedipalps mahogany to chocolate, the legs are clearer, drawing on yellow ochre more or less orange. Very granulated tail with 10 very marked keels.
Parabuthus stridulus Hewitt, 1913 Namibia. 37-42 31-37
  • Scorpion of good size, 11 cm for a male and up to 14 cm for a female. The body, the pedipalps and the tergites are dark mahogany to brown dark chocolate. Clearer tail, light brown means, and the legs are yellowish orange.
Parabuthus transvaalicus Purcell, 1899 South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe. ?? ??
  • Large scorpion which can exceed 16 cm, especially for the females. Color very dark going of the greenish black to the brown black. The fingers of the pedipalps and the end of the legs are clearer, brown mahogany . Large vesicle with a great quantity of hairs.
Parabuthus villosus (Peters, 1862) South Africa, Angola, Namibia. 36-42 34-41
  • The largest Parabuthus, a male can reach 14 cm and a female 18 cm. The color varies according to areas where this scorpion saw, it can be maroon very dark, almost black, with the pedipalps slightly clearer and the legs orange yellow, but there are specimens which have the pedipalps very clearly, almost yellow straw. Presence of a lot of hairs on the vesicle.
Parabuthus zavattarii Caporiacco, 1939 Namibia.  
  • In search of informations

Note : The principal sexual dimorphism of Parabuthus lies in the hand of the pedipalps which is, in the male, shorter but much more globulous.

Subspecies of Parabuthus :

Parabuthus gravimanus Pocock, 1895

  • Parabuthus gravimanus granimaus Pocock, 1895 : Afrique : Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia. Middle east : Yemen.
  • Parabuthus gravimanus fuscicauda Caporiacco, 1947 : Ethiopia.

Parabuthus granulatus (Ehrenberg, 1831)

  • Parabuthus granulatus granulatus (Ehrenberg, 1831) : South Africa, Botswana, Kenya ?, Namibia.
  • Parabuthus granulatus strenuus Hewitt, 1918 : South Africa.

Parabuthus heterurus Pocock, 1899

  • Parabuthus heterurus heterurus Pocock, 1899 : Ethiopia, Somalia.
  • Parabuthus heterurus stefaninii Caporiacco 1927 : Somalia.

Parabuthus liosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828)

  • Parabuthus liosoma leiosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) : Afrique : Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Soudan, Tanzania. Moyen-Orient : Saudi Arabia, Yemen.
  • Parabuthus liosoma abyssinicus Pocock, 1901 : Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania.
  • Parabuthus liosoma dmitrievi Birula, 1903 : Ethiopia, Somalia.

Parabuthus mixtus Borelli, 1925

  • Parabuthus mixtus mixtus Borelli, 1925 : Somalia.
  • Parabuthus mixtus obscurior Caporiacco, 1941 : Somalia.

Parabuthus mossambicensis (Peters, 1861)

  • Parabuthus mossambicensis mossambicensis (Peters, 1861) : South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.
  • Parabuthus mossambicensis flavidus Pocock, 1899 : South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe.

Parabuthus planicauda (Pocock, 1889)

  • Parabuthus planicauda planicauda (Pocock, 1889) : South Africa.
  • Parabuthus planicauda frenchi (Purcell, 1901) : South Africa.

Parabuthus villosus (Peters, 1862)

  • Parabuthus villosus villosus (Peters, 1862) : South Africa, Angola, Namibia.
  • Parabuthus villosus brachystylus Lawrence, 1928 : Namibia.

The Breeding

Note: We formally disadvise to the beginners this family considered for her very toxic venom.

 

Temperature:

In general, Parabuthus require temperatures bordering the 30°C, especially for the young who must carry out moults. In summer, the tempéatures can reach the 40°C without problem, but a fall of at least 10°C nevertheless is very advised for the night. The winter, the temperature can go down until 10°C, but you can keep a higher temperature (20°C).

Food:

Parabuthus are frightening hunters, their preys are multiple and the largest specimens will not move back in front of a large cockroach, to see even a mouse. The locusts pilgrims are ideal for a meal for those which exceed 8/9 cm and the crickets of all sizes will be enough for smallest. These species accustomed to live in the most arid places, is very adapted to their medium, indeed the loss out of water is trés weak, for saying non-existent. Their metabolism makes that with a large prey, they will occur to eat during one very long period. Also to avoid giving too much food to this kind of scorpion. However, a water vaporization or the filling of a feeding trough once every two month is nevertheless advised.

Terrarium:

The large and dry terrariums will be the ideal terrariums. These scorpions do not like moisture at all, even if they do not refuse a water cup from time to time, avoid softening the ground. If possible, put a coarse ground like substrate. The ochre ground that one finds in certain areas of the south of France is very well. The presence of rocks, stones and large barks are very appreciated like hiding-places. However, if you put a good height of ground, Parabuthus will dig a burrow, it all are very good burrowners...

Sociability:

It is generally good, the adult couples get along well and can thus remain together. Personally, I never had loss at the time of cohabitation male/female and female/female. However, there is a very strong cannibalism between the young people, smallest devouring largest during the moult. Or then, they are largest, after the moult, which devours smallest. In short, it is to better isolate the young people.

Note:

With the Parabuthus transvaalicus, in the event of pronounced stress, the scorpion is able to project a great quantity of venom with a high degree of accuracy. Also, made very attention in your eyes. It it can that this venom irritates you the nostrils (micro-drops suspended in the air) and makes you sneeze, a little as for a light teargas.

References :

  • Fet Victor, Sissom W., David Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E. CATALOG OF THE SCORPIONS OF THE WORLD, 2000. The New York Entomological Society.
  • Lamoral Bruno, THE SCORPIONS OF NAMIBIA (ARACHNIDA: SCORPIONES), 1979. Ann. Natal Mus. 23(3): 497-784.
  • Lourenzo Prendini, THE SYSTEMATICX OF SOUTHERN AFRICAN PARABUTHUS POCOCK (SORPIONES, BUTHIDAE): REVISIONS TO THE TAXONOMY AND KEY TO THE SPECIES, 2004. The J.A.O. 32: 109-186.
Last update 07/30/2005
 

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